Main Article Content
Research background: Globalisation and economic integration are the reasons for which the competitiveness of economic entities is analysed more and more often in the context of their relations with the international market. One of the ways to assess the competitiveness of the Polish food sector is an analysis of comparative (relative) advantages in the export of this sector’s products.
Purpose of the article: The objective of this paper is to assess comparative advantages in Polish export of food products to the European Union against a background of selected groups of non-food products.
Methods: The study used the B. Balassa’s revealed comparative advantage (RCA) index. The study is preceded by a brief review of foreign trade results. The source of data was the WITS-Comtrade commercial database. The analysis was carried out at the level of the HS sections (in commodity terms). The research period covered the years 2003–2015.
Findings & Value added: In the years 2003–2015, export of food increased nearly six times and its import — more than 4.5 times. The major partners of Poland as regards trade in food were the EU countries. The food sector was one of few sectors of the economy with the positive trade balance. Polish export to the EU was characterised by a diversified level of comparative advantages. From among 20 HS sections, in 2015 Poland had comparative advantages in export to the EU countries for products from 10 sections (2 food and 8 non-food). Those products accounted for 11% and 70% of Polish export to the EU, respectively. The development of Polish foreign trade in food products during the Polish membership in the EU as well as fairly high comparative advantages in the export of these products to the EU indicate the competitiveness and significant importance of the Polish food sector for the national economy.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Ambroziak, Ł., & Szczepaniak, I. (2011). Indicative assessment of competitiveness of trade in agri-food products. In I. Szczepaniak (Ed.). Monitoring and assessment of competitiveness of Polish food producers (1). Series “Program Wieloletni 2011-2014,” no 25. Warsaw: IAFE-NRI. Retrieved form https://www.ierigz.waw.pl/publikacje/raporty-programu-wieloletniego-2011-2014/3871,18,3,0,1330695710.html. (the original is available in Polish)
Balassa, B. (1977). Revealed comparative advantage revisited: an analysis of relative export shares of the industrial countries, 1953-1971. Manchester School of Economics and Social Studies, 45(4).
Balassa, B. (1965). Trade liberalization and revealed comparative advantage. Manchester School, 33.
Brasili, A., Epifani, P., & Helg, R. (2000). On the dynamics of trade patterns. De Economist, 148(2). doi: 10.1023/A:1004065229330.
Budnikowski, A. (2017). International economics. Warszawa: Polskie Wydawnictwo Ekonomiczne.
Guzek, M. (2004). International economic relations. Outline of commercial theory and practice. Poznań: Wydawnictwo Wyższej Szkoły Bankowej w Poznaniu.
Hartigan, J. C. (1981). The U.S. tariff and comparative advantage: a survey of method. Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv, 117(1). doi: 10.1007/BF02696578.
Hinloopen, J., & Marrewijk, Ch. (2001). On the empirical distribution of the Balassa index. Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv, 137(1). doi: 10.1007/BF02707598.
Krugman, P. R., & Obstfeld, M. (2003). International economics. Theory and policy, Sixth edition. Addison-Wesley World Student Series.
Marks-Bielska, R., Lizińska, W., & Serocka, I. (2015). Polish agri-food foreign trade and its comparative advantage in 2008-2013. Journal of Agribusiness and Rural Development, 4(38). doi: 10.17306/JARD.2015.79.
Misala, J. (2011). International competitiveness of the national economy. Warsaw: Polskie Wydawnictwo Ekonomiczne.
Neven, D. (1995). Trade liberalisation with Eastern nations: some distribution issues. European Economic Review, 39(3-4).
Olczyk, M. (2008). Competitiveness. Theory and practice. Warsaw: CeDeWu.PL.
Pawlak, K., & Poczta, W. (2011). International agricultural trade. Theories, competitiveness, development scenarios. Warsaw: Polskie Wydawnictwo Ekonomiczne.
Szczepaniak, I. (2016a). The assessment of international competitive position of the agri-food sector compared to other sectors of the Polish economy. In I. Szczepaniak (Ed.). Competitiveness of Polish food producers (2). series “Monografie Programu Wieloletniego 2015-2019,” no 38. Warsaw: IAFE-NRI. Retrieved form https://www.ierigz.waw.pl/publikacje/publikacje-programu-wieloletniego-2015-2019/20640,6,3,0,nr-38-konkurencyjnosc-polskich-producentow-zywnosci-i-jej-determinanty-(2).html.
Szczepaniak, I. (2016b). Poland’s export specialisation in trade with the European Union: Food products versus non-food products. International Business and Global Economy, 35(1). doi: 10.4467/23539496IB.16.035.5616.
Szczepaniak, I. (2017). Perspectives and conditions for development of Polish export of agri-food products – geographical approach. In R. Borowiecki & J. Kaczmarek (Eds.). The Propensity to changes in the competitive and innovative economic environment. Processes – structures – concepts). Cracow: Cracow University of Economics.
Widodo, T. (2009). Comparative advantage: theory, empirical measures and case studies. Review of Economic and Business Studies, 4.
Wijnands, J. H. M., & Verhoog, D. (2016). Competitiveness of the EU food industry. Ex-post assessment of trade performance embedded in international economic theory, LEI Wageningen UR.