Analysis of Bratislava and Žilina as urban areas in Western Slovakia in the context of associations among employment and industries

Main Article Content

Gabriela Koľveková
Daniela Palaščáková


Research background: This paper observes especially the position of cities, urban areas in the context of global value chains — GVCs. Global value chains reflect specialization and labour division of companies, mostly multinational enterprises – MNEs. MNEs can be considered flagships of some industries. Such flagships influence suppliers and purchasers. MNEs are a part of networks or have got access to such networks that combine dispersion of the value chain, the boundaries of the firm and across national borders.

Purpose of the article: The impetus for this work was to look at the position of Slovak cities (Bratislava, Žilina) in order to look for sectors that can help to develop the city and its adjacent regions, particularly cross-border regions. The paper discussed how the attribute of the cross-border regions gives the cities more advantageous position in GVCs.

Methodology: Applying the method of location quotient allowed to shed a light on the GVCs, which cities participate in. Some cities were in a position to take advantage of participation in GVCs.

Findings & Value added: Examined cities are located in the western part of the Slovak Republic. Discussion about the attribute of the cross-border regions can stimulate new ideas for finding causalities in city sprawl or in specialization patterns in the industrial structure of the city. Discussion further fosters the comparison of two cities strengths and weaknesses of each of them that were summarized in terms of employment and industrial exploitation of GVCs. This is the first finding and value added of the paper. The second one is that the method of location quotient is simple but provides clear evidence of the regional development or decline in particular industries and at the time of observation.

Article Details

How to Cite
Koľveková, G., & Palaščáková, D. (2017). Analysis of Bratislava and Žilina as urban areas in Western Slovakia in the context of associations among employment and industries. Oeconomia Copernicana, 8(4), 537-552.


Baus, P., Kováč, U., Pauditšová, E., Kohutková, I., & Komorník, J. (2014). Identification of interconnections between landscape pattern and urban dynamics—Case study Bratislava, Slovakia. Ecological Indicators, 42. doi: 10.1016/j.ecolind.2013.12.011.
Brueckner, J. K. (2000). Urban sprawl: diagnosis and remedies. International regional science review, 23(2).
Capone, F., & Boix, R. (2008). Sources of growth and competitiveness of local tourist production systems: an application to Italy (1991–2001). Annals of Regional Science, 42(1).
Flegg, A. T., & Tohmo, T. (2013). Regional input-output tables and the FLQ formula: a case study of Finland. Regional Studies, 47(5). doi: 10.1080/00343404.2011.592138.
Flegg, A. T., & Webber, C. D. (1997). On the appropriate use of location quotients in generating regional input-output tables: reply. Regional Studies, 31(8). doi:10.1080/713693401.
Fratesi, U., & Senn, L. (2008). Growth and innovation of competitive regions: the role of internal and external connections: Springer Science & Business Media.
Freeman, J., & Modarres, R. (2006). Inverse Box–Cox: the power-normal distribution. Statistics & Probability Letters, 76(8). doi: 10.1016/j.spl.2005.10.036.
Giovannetti, G., & Marvasi, E. (2016). Food exporters in global value chains: Evidence from Italy. Food Policy, 59. doi: 10.1016/j.foodpol.2015.10.001.
Guimaraes, P., Figueiredo, O., & Woodward, D. (2009). Dartboard tests for the location quotient. Regional Science and Urban Economics, 39(3). doi: 10.1016/j.regsciurbeco.2008.12.003
Habitat, U. (2016). World cities report 2016. UN Habitat: Nairobi, Kenya.
Hsieh, H.-J., & Kung, S.-F. (2013). The linkage analysis of environmental impact of tourism industry. Procedia Environmental Sciences, 17.
Johnson, M. P. (2001). Environmental impacts of urban sprawl: a survey of the literature and proposed research agenda. Environment and planning A, 33(4).
Jun, M. J. (2009). Economic impacts of Seoul's job decentralization: a metropolitan input-output analysis. Journal of Regional Science, 49(2). doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9787.2008.00585.x.
Lahr, M. L., & Stevens, B. H. (2002). A study of the role of regionalization in the generation of aggregation error in regional input–output models. Journal of Regional Science, 42(3).
Leamer, E. E. (2000). What’s the use of factor contents? Journal of International Economics, 50(1). doi: 10.1016/S0022-1996(99)00004-5.
Leigh, R. (1970). The use of location quotients in urban economic base studies. Land Economics, 46(2).
Marlet, G., & Van Woerkens, C. (2007). The Dutch creative class and how it fosters urban employment growth. Urban Studies, 44(13).
Miller, R. E., & Blair, P. D. (1985). Input-output analysis: foundations and extensions: Prentice-Hall.
Nevens, F., Frantzeskaki, N., Gorissen, L., & Loorbach, D. (2013). Urban transition labs: co-creating transformative action for sustainable cities. Journal of Cleaner Production, 50. doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2012.12.001.
O’Donoghue, D., & Gleave, B. (2004). A note on methods for measuring industrial agglomeration. Regional Studies, 38(4).
Pazúr, R., Feranec, J., Štych, P., Kopecká, M., & Holman, L. (2017). Changes of urbanised landscape identified and assessed by the Urban Atlas data: case study of Prague and Bratislava. Land Use Policy, 61. doi: 10.1016/j.landusepol.2016.11.022.
Pratt, A. C. (2009). Social and economic drivers of land use change in the British space economy. Land Use Policy, 26, Supplement, 1. doi: 10.1016/j.landusepol.2009.09.006.
Sassen, S. (2002). Locating cities on global circuits. Environment and urbanization, 14(1).
Stallings, D. (2001). The virtual university: organizing to survive in the 21st Century. Journal of Academic Librarianship, 27(1). doi: 10.1016/S0099-1333(00)00208-1.
Sturgeon, T. J., & Van Biesebroeck, J. (2011). Global value chains in the automotive industry: an enhanced role for developing countries? International Journal of Technological Learning, Innovation and Development, 4(1-3).
Uhel, R. (2006). Urban sprawl in Europe: the ignored challenge. EAA Report, 10(2).
Verbeek, T., Boussauw, K., & Pisman, A. (2014). Presence and trends of linear sprawl: Explaining ribbon development in the north of Belgium. Landscape and Urban Planning, 128. doi: 10.1016/j.landurbplan.2014.04.022.
Yigitcanlar, T., Dur, F., & Dizdaroglu, D. (2015). Towards prosperous sustainable cities: A multiscalar urban sustainability assessment approach. Habitat International, 45, Part 1. doi: 10.1016/j.habitatint.2014.06.033.
Zeleny, M. (2007). The mobile society: effects of global sourcing and network organisation. International Journal of Mobile Learning and Organisation, 1(1).