Application of the Perkal method for assessing competitiveness of the countries of Central and Eastern Europe

Main Article Content

Hanna Kruk Anetta Waśniewska


Research background: The changes that took place in the late twentieth century led to the transformation of the political system in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). As a result, there has been an increase in the competitiveness of some of the economies among the CEE states. Due to different priorities and goals, these countries are also characterized by different levels in socio-economic development.

Purpose of the article: The aim of the article is to identify the determinants affecting the competitiveness among the selected CEE countries.

Methods: Based on Eurostat data, a set of determinants affecting competitiveness was established. A number of determinants have been eliminated in relation to the variation coefficient. At the same time, a classification of the level of competitiveness among the CEE countries has been made by using the Perkal method. The analysis used 14 selected indicators, 10 of which are considered as stimulating, and 4 as deteriorating the competitiveness of national economies. The result led to obtaining a synthetic level indicator of potential of the CEE countries.

Findings & Value added: Following the findings of the conducted analysis, the highest economic competitiveness exists in Estonia and in the Czech Republic, while the lowest was found in Romania and Bulgaria. The results of the evaluation obtained with the Perkal method concerning the competitiveness of the CEE countries that belong to the EU are largely consistent with those presented in different global competitiveness rankings. However, the method applied in this article seems much simpler and less time-consuming, allowing at the same time an optimal choice of analytical determinants. The selected linear Pearson correlation’s coefficient confirmed that there is a strong positive relationship between the designated values of the synthetic indicator of competitiveness and the GDP per capita. This confirms the validity of test method used.

Article Details

How to Cite
Kruk, H., & Waśniewska, A. (2017). Application of the Perkal method for assessing competitiveness of the countries of Central and Eastern Europe. Oeconomia Copernicana, 8(3), 337–352.


Adamkiewicz-Drwiłło, H. G. (2012). Estimating the impact of globalization on international competitiveness: a multidimensional approach. China-USA Business Review, 11(12).
Adamkiewicz-Drwiłło, H.G. (2014). The impact of globalisation process over competitiveness of the countries. Optimum. Studia Ekonomiczne, 4.
Aidukaite, J. (2011). Welfare reforms and socio-economic trends in the 10 new EU member states of Central and Eastern Europe. Communist and Post-Communist Studies, 44. doi: 10.1016/j.postcomstud.2011.07.005.
Aiginger, K., Bärenthaler-Sieber, S., & Vogel, J. (2013). Competitiveness under new perspectives. Working Paper no 44, Vienna: WWWforEurope, European Commission.
Apanasovich, N., Alcade Heras, H., & Parrilli, M. D. (2016). The impact of business innovation modes on SME innovation performance in post-Soviet transition economies: The case of Belarus. Technovation, 57-58. doi: 10.1016/j.technovation.2016.05.001.
Balkytė, A. & Tvaronavičienė, M. (2010). Perception of competitiveness in the context of sustainable development: facets of “sustainable competitiveness”. Journal of Business Economics and Management, 11(2). doi: 10.3846/jbem.2010.17.
Bevan, A. A., & Estrin, S. (2004). The determinants of foreign direct investment into European transition economies. Journal of Comparative Economics, 32. doi: 10.1016/j.jce.2004.08.006.
Binelli, C., Loveless, M., & Whitefield, S. (2015). What is social inequality and why does it matter? Evidence from Central and Eastern Europe. World Development, 70. doi: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2015.02.007.
Definition of competitiveness (in international trade). Retrieved 25.08.2016 from
Dudzik, K., & Głowacki, J. (2010). The impact of structural funds and the Cohesion Fund on the regional development in Poland. Zarządzanie Publiczne, 1(11).
Gallyamova, D. Kh. (2015). Development of the countries with a transition economy. Procedia Economics and Finance, 24. doi: 10.1016/S2212-5671(15)00656-5.
Giroud, A., Jindra, B., & Marek, P. (2012). Heterogenous FDI in transition economies a novel approach to assess the developmental impact of backward linkages. World Development, 40(11). doi: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2012.03.018.
Gorzeń-Mitka, I. (2007). Barriers to business activity and competitiveness of enterprises within Central and Eastern Europe. In T. Bernat (Ed.). Enterprise and state – selected problems of competitiveness. Szczecin: Katedra Mikroekonomii Uniwersytetu Szczecińskiego.
Gurgul, H., & Lach, Ł. (2014). Globalization and economic growth: Evidence from two decades of transition in CEE. Economic Modelling, 36. doi: 10.1016/j.econmod.2013.09.022.
Gurgul, H., & Lach, Ł. (2015). Key sectors in the post-communist CEE economies: What does the transition data say? Communist and Post-Communist Studies, 48. doi: 10.1016/j.postcomstud.2014.12.001.
GUS (2013). The influence of demographic and economic potentials of voivodeship’s capitals on condition of voivodeships. Warszawa: Główny Urząd Statystyczny.
Huggins, R. (1997). Regional competitive specialization. Development agency sector initiatives in Wales. Area, 29(3). doi: 10.1111/j.1475-4762.1997.tb00026.x.
IMD World Competitiveness Scoreboard 2014. Retrieved from: (12.11.2016).
IMD World Competitiveness – criteria list. Retrived from: (12.11.2016).
Kharlamova, G., & Vertelieva, O. (2013). The international competitiveness of countries: economic-mathematical approach. Economics & Sociology, 6(2). doi: 10.14254/2071-789X.2013/6-2/4.
Klamut, M., & Passella, E. (1999). Improvement in the level of regional competitiveness. In M. Klamut (Ed.). Competitiveness of the regions. Wrocław: Wydawnictwo Akademii Ekonomicznej im. Oskara Langego we Wrocławiu.
Kolodko, G. W. (2001). Globalization and catching up: from recession to growth in transition economies. Communist and Post-Communist Studies, 34. doi: 10.1016/S0967-067X(01)00010-1.
Kornai, J. (2006). The great transformation of Central Eastern Europe: success and disappointment. Economics of Transition, 14(2). doi: 10.1111/j.1468-0351.200 6.00252.x.
Krajnyák, K., & Zettemeyer, J. (1998). Competitiveness in transition economies: what scope for real appreciation? International Monetary Fund Papers, 45(2). doi: 10.2307/3867392.
Krugman, P. (1994). Competitiveness: a dangerous obsession. Foreign Affairs, 2.
Misiak, W. (2007). Globalisation. More than a coursebook. Warszawa: Centrum Doradztwa i Inoformacji Difin sp. z o.o.
Önsel, Ş., Ülengin, F., Ulusoy, G., Aktaş, E., Kabak, Ö., & Topcu, Y. İ. (2008). A new perspective on the competitiveness of nations. Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, 42. doi: 10.1016/j.seps.2007.11.001.
Parysek, J., & Wojtasiewicz, L. (1979). Methods of regional analysis and methods of regional planning. Warszawa: Państwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe.
Pilarska, C. (2010). International competitiveness of Polish economy in the background of other Central and Eastern European countries – new entrants of the European Union. In Z. Dach (Ed.). Poland against globalisation processes. Socio-economic aspects. Kraków: Polskie Towarzystwo Ekonomiczne.
Porter, M. E. (2008). On competition. Updated and expanded edition. Harvard Business Review Book.
Salvatore, D. (2010). Globalisation, international competitiveness and growth: advanced and emerging markets, larde and small countries. Journal of International Commerce, economics and Policy, 1(1). doi: 10.1142/S179399331 000007X.
Schwab, K. (Ed.) (2014). The global competitiveness report 2014-2015. Geneva: World Economic Forum. Retrieved from WEF_GlobalCompetitivenessReport_2014-15.pdf (12.11.2016).
Schwab, K. (Ed.) (2015). The global competitiveness report 2015-2016. Geneva: World Economic Forum. Retrieved from WEF_GlobalCompetitivenessReport_2015-16.pdf (12.11.2016).
Swinnen, J. F. M., & Gow, H. R. (1999). Agricultural credit problems and policies during the transition to a market economy in Central and Eastern Europe. Food Policy, 24. doi: 10.1016/S0306-9192(98)00067-0.