A moderated mediation model of perceived barriers, entrepreneurial self-efficacy, intentions, and behaviors: A social cognitive career theory perspective





Social Cognitive Career Theory, perceived barriers, entrepreneurial self-efficacy, entrepreneurial intention, entrepreneurial behavior


Research background: Although perceived barriers are considered one of the central constructs in entrepreneurship research, most previous studies only examine the direct effect of perceived barriers on attitudes and/or intentions to become entrepreneurs. Little attention is paid to how perceived barriers can weaken individuals? translation from entrepreneurial intentions to actual behaviors.

Purpose of the article: This research aims to adopt the Social Cognitive Career Theory and a moderated mediation model to bridge the entrepreneurial intention-action link, investigate the moderation effects of perceived barriers on this link and the mediation path from entrepreneurial self-efficacy to entrepreneurial behavior via entrepreneurial intention.

Methods: A valid sample of 1,698 Vietnamese respondents with real working and business experiences through the stratified random sampling with three stages and PROCESS macro approach have been used to examine the moderated mediation effect of perceived barriers on the entrepreneurial self-efficacy-intention-behavior linkages.

Findings & value added:  The findings of this study shed new light on entrepreneurial literature by applying the Social Cognitive Career Theory to illustrate the moderated mediation effects of perceived barriers and entrepreneurial intention in the relationship between entrepreneurial self-efficacy and entrepreneurial behavior. Particularly, the translation from entrepreneurial intentions into start-up actions was found to became weaker when perceived barriers was high. Moreover, perceived barriers were also found to negatively moderate the indirect effects of entrepreneurial self-efficacy on start-up behaviors through entrepreneurial intentions. The findings of our study also provide several essential recommendations for policymakers and practitioners to encourage individuals? business venture creations and enhance entrepreneurial ecosystem.


Download data is not yet available.


Adebusuyi, A. S., Adebusuyi, O. F., & Kolade, O. (2022). Development and validation of sources of entrepreneurial self-efficacy and outcome expectations: A social cognitive career theory perspective. International Journal of Management Education, 20(2), 1?11. doi: 10.1016/j.ijme.2021.100572.

Adeel, S., Daniel, A. D., & Botelho, A. (2023). The effect of entrepreneurship education on the determinants of entrepreneurial behaviour among higher education students: A multi-group analysis. Journal of Innovation & Knowledge, 8(1), 1?12. doi: 10.1016/j.jik.2023.100324.

Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Journal of Behavior and Human Decision Process, 50, 197?211. doi: 10.1016/0749-5978(91)90020-T.

Alferaih, A. (2022). Starting a new business? Assessing university students? intentions towards digital entrepreneurship in Saudi Arabia. International Journal of Information Management Data Insights, 2(2), 1?12. doi: 10.1016/j.jjimei .2022.100087.

Baluku, M. M., Nansubuga, F., Otto, K., & Horn, L. (2020). Risk aversion, entrepreneurial attitudes, intention and entry among young people in Uganda and Germany: A gendered analysis. Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation in Emerging Economies, 7(1), 31?59. doi: 10.1177/2393957520960567.

Bandura, A. (2011). On the functional properties of perceived self-efficacy revisited. Journal of Management, 38(1), 9?44. doi: 10.1177/0149206311410606.

Brunel, O., Laviolette, E. M., & Radu-Lefebvre, M. (2017). Role models and entrepreneurial intention: The moderating effects of experience, locus of control and self-esteem. Journal of Enterprising Culture, 25(02), 149?177. doi: 10.1142/s021 8495817500066.

Bujang, M. A., Sa'at, N., Sidik, T., & Joo, L. C. (2018). Sample size guidelines for logistic regression from observational studies with large population: Emphasis on the accuracy between statistics and parameters based on real life clinical data. Malaysia Journal Medical Sciences, 25(4), 122?130. doi: 10.21315/mjms2018. 25.4.12.

Calza, F., Cannavale, C., & Zohoorian Nadali, I. (2020). How do cultural values influence entrepreneurial behavior of nations? A behavioral reasoning approach. International Business Review, 29(5), 1?13. doi: 10.1016/j.ibusrev.2020.10 1725.

Chinta, R., & Collier, D. (2022). Interplay of antecedents in nascent entrepreneurship: Conceptual model and research propositions. Journal of the International Council for Small Business, 3(4), 292?302. doi: doi: 10.1080/26437015. 2022.2089074.

Ciuchta, M. P., & Finch, D. (2019). The mediating role of self-efficacy on entrepreneurial intentions: Exploring boundary conditions. Journal of Business Venturing Insights, 11, 1?10. doi: 10.1016/j.jbvi.2019.e00128.

Csillag, S., Gyori, Z., & Svastics, C. (2019). Long and winding road? Barriers and supporting factors as perceived by entrepreneurs with disabilities. Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, 13(1/2), 42?63. doi: 10.1108/jec-11-2018-0097.

Cui, J., & Bell, R. (2022). Behavioural entrepreneurial mindset: How entrepreneurial education activity impacts entrepreneurial intention and behaviour. International Journal of Management Education, 20(2), 1?16. doi: 10.1016/j.ijme.2022.100639.

Doanh, D. C., Bernat, T., Hieu, N. T., Bich Ngoc, N., & Thi Phuong Linh, N. (2021). Academic entrepreneurship: An empirical research of invention commercia-lisation. Central European Business Review, 10(4), 33?62. doi: 10.18267/j.cebr.265.

Doern, R. (2011). Understanding how perceived barriers influence growth intentions and behaviours. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, 17(5), 488?514. doi: 10.1108/13552551111158826.

Dölarslan, E. Ş., KoÇak, A., & Walsh, P. (2020). Perceived barriers to entrepreneurial intention: The mediating role of self-efficacy. Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship, 25(03), 1?23. doi: 10.1142/s1084946720500168.

Duong, A. H., & Antriyandarti, E. (2022). The willingness to get vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2 virus among Southeast Asian countries: Does the vaccine brand matter? Applied Research Quality of Life, 1?29. doi: 10.1007/s11482-022-10104-5.

Duong, C. D. (2022). Entrepreneurial fear of failure and the attitude-intention-behavior gap in entrepreneurship: A moderated mediation model. International Journal of Management Education, 20(3), 1?15. doi: 10.1016/j.ijme.2022.100707.

Duong, C. D. (2023). Applying the stimulus-organism-response theory to investigate determinants of students? social entrepreneurship: Moderation role of perceived university support. Social Enterprise Journal. Advance online publicaton. doi: 10.1108/SEJ-10-2022-0091.

Fayolle, A., & Li?án, F. (2014). The future of research on entrepreneurial intentions. Journal of Business Research, 67(5), 663?666. doi: 10.1016/j.jbusres.2013.11.024.

Ghosh, S. (2022). COVID-19, clean energy stock market, interest rate, oil prices, volatility index, geopolitical risk nexus: Evidence from quantile regression. Journal of Economics and Development, 24(4), 329?344. doi: 10.1108/jed-04-2022-0073.

Giacomin, O., Janssen, F., Pruett, M., Shinnar, R. S., Llopis, F., & Toney, B. (2010). Entrepreneurial intentions, motivations and barriers: Differences among American, Asian and European students. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 7(2), 219?238. doi: 10.1007/s11365-010-0155-y.

Gieure, C., Benavides-Espinosa, M. D. M., & Roig-Dobón, S. (2020). The entrepreneurial process: The link between intentions and behavior. Journal of Business Research, 112, 541?548. doi: 10.1016/j.jbusres.2019.11.088.

Gorgievski, M. J., Stephan, U., Laguna, M., & Moriano, J. A. (2018). Predicting entrepreneurial career intentions: Values and the theory of planned behavior. Journal of Career Assessment 26(3), 457?475. doi: 10.1177/1069072717714541.

Hair, J. F., Howard, M. C., & Nitzl, C. (2020). Assessing measurement model quality in PLS-SEM using confirmatory composite analysis. Journal of Business Research, 109, 101?110. doi: 10.1016/j.jbusres.2019.11.069.

Hayes, A. F. (2018). An introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: A regression-based approach. New York: Guilford Press.

Hayes, A. F., Montoya, A. K., & Rockwood, N. J. (2021). The analysis of mechanisms and their contingencies: PROCESS versus Structural Equation Modeling. Australasian Marketing Journal, 25(1), 76?81. doi: 10.1016/j.ausmj.2017.02.001.

Hsu, D. K., Burmeister-Lamp, K., Simmons, S. A., Foo, M.-D., Hong, M. C., & Pipes, J. D. (2019). ?I know I can, but I don't fit?: Perceived fit, self-efficacy, and entrepreneurial intention. Journal of Business Venturing, 34(2), 311?326. doi: 10.1016/j.jbusvent.2018.08.004.

Hu, L. T., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 6(1), 1?55. doi: 10.1080/107055199 09540118.

Kebaili, B., Al-Subyae, S. S., & Al-Qahtani, F. (2017). Barriers of entrepreneurial intention among Qatari male students. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 24(4), 833?849. doi: 10.1108/jsbed-11-2016-0186.

Kebaili, B., Al-Subyae, S. S., Al-Qahtani, F., & Belkhamza, Z. (2015). An exploratory study of entrepreneurship barriers: The case of Qatar. World Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development, 11(3), 210?219. doi: 10.1108/wjemsd-03-2015-0014.

Kock, F., Berbekova, A., & Assaf, G. (2021). Understanding and managing the threat of common method bias: Detection, prevention and control. Tourism Management, 86, 104303. doi: 10.1016/j.tourman.2021.104330.

Kong, F., Zhao, L., & Tsai, C. H. (2020). The relationship between entrepreneurial intention and action: The effects of fear of failure and role model. Frontier in Psychology, 11, 229. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2020.00229.

Krueger, N. F., Jr., Reilly, M. D., & Carsrud, A. L. (2000). Competing models of entrepreneurial intentions. Journal of Business Venturing, 15(5?6), 411?432. doi: 10.1016/S0883-9026(98)00033-0.

Lanero, A., Vázquez, J.-L., & Aza, C. L. (2016). Social cognitive determinants of entrepreneurial career choice in university students. International Small Business Journal: Researching Entrepreneurship, 34(8), 1053?1075. doi: 10.1177/0266242615 612882.

Lent, R. W., & Brown, L. (2013). Social cognitive model of career self-management: Toward a unifying view of adaptive career behavior across the life span. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 60(4), 557?568. doi: doi: 10.1037/a0033446.

Lent, R. W., & Brown, S. D. (2020). Career decision making, fast and slow: Toward an integrative model of intervention for sustainable career choice. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 120, 1?13. doi: 10.1016/j.jvb.2020.103448.

Li?án, F. (2008). Skill and value perceptions: How do they affect entrepreneurial intentions? International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 4, 257?272. doi: 10.1007/s11365-008-0093-0.

Li?án, F., & Chen, Y.-W. (2009). Development and cross-cultural application of a specific instrument to measure entrepreneurial intentions. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 33(3), 593?617. doi: 10.1111/j.1540-6520.2009.00318.x.

Maheshwari, G., & Kha, K. L. (2022). Investigating the relationship between educational support and entrepreneurial intention in Vietnam: The mediating role of entrepreneurial self-efficacy in the theory of planned behavior. International Journal of Management Education, 20(2), 1?14. doi: 10.1016/j.ijme.2021.100553.

Meoli, A., Fini, R., Sobrero, M., & Wiklund, J. (2020). How entrepreneurial intentions influence entrepreneurial career choices: The moderating influence of social context. Journal of Business Venturing, 35(3), 1?20. doi: 10.1016/j.jbusvent. 2019.105982.

Neneh, B. N. (2019). From entrepreneurial intentions to behavior: The role of anticipated regret and proactive personality. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 112, 311?324. doi: 10.1016/j.jvb.2019.04.005.

Newman, A., Obschonka, M., Schwarz, S., Cohen, M., & Nielsen, I. (2019). Entrepreneurial self-efficacy: A systematic review of the literature on its theoretical foundations, measurement, antecedents, and outcomes, and an agenda for future research. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 110, 403?419. doi: 10.1016/j.jvb.2018.05.012.

Nguyen, A. T., Do, T. H. H., Vu, T. B. T., Dang, K. A., & Nguyen, H. L. (2019). Factors affecting entrepreneurial intentions among youths in Vietnam. Children and Youth Services Review, 99, 186?193. doi: 10.1016/j.childyouth.2019.01.039.

Nguyen, D. T., & Pham, T. H. (2021). Factors affecting entrepreneurial intention of Vietnamese students: The comparative analysis on gender and field of study. Journal of Economics and Development, 292, 89?100.

Nguyen, N. M. (2023). The effect of FDI on domestic entrepreneurship: The case of greenfield investment and cross-border M&A activities. Journal of Economics and Development, 25(1), 62?78. doi: 10.1108/jed-11-2022-0228.

Nguyen, T. T., Nguyen, L. T. P., Phan, H. T. T., & Vu, A. T. (2021). Impact of entrepreneurship extracurricular activities and inspiration on entrepreneurial intention: Mediator and moderator effect. Sage Open, 11(3), 1?13. doi: 10.1177 /21582440211032174.

Nielsen, B. B., & Raswant, A. (2018). The selection, use, and reporting of control variables in international business research: A review and recommendations. Journal of World Business, 53(6), 958?968. doi: 10.1016/j.jwb.2018.05.003.

Nwosu, H. E., Obidike, P. C., Ugwu, J. N., Udeze, C. C., & Okolie, U. C. (2022). Applying social cognitive theory to placement learning in business firms and students? entrepreneurial intentions. International Journal of Management Education, 20(1), 1?13. doi: 10.1016/j.ijme.2022.100602.

Osunmuyiwa, O. O., & Ahlborg, H. (2022). Stimulating competition, diversification, or re-enforcing entrepreneurial barriers? Exploring small-scale electricity systems and gender-inclusive entrepreneurship. Energy Research & Social Science, 89, 1?13. doi: 10.1016/j.erss.2022.102566.

Pérez-López, M. C., González-López, M. J., & Rodríguez-Ariza, L. (2019). Applying the social cognitive model of career self-management to the entrepreneurial career decision: The role of exploratory and coping adaptive behaviours. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 112, 255?269. doi: 10.1016/j.jvb.2019.03.005.

Pham, D., Jones, P., Dobson, S., Li?án, F., & Viala, C. (2021). Entrepreneurial implementation intention as a tool to moderate the stability of entrepreneurial goal intention: A sensemaking approach. Journal of Business Research, 123, 97?105. doi: 10.1016/j.jbusres.2020.09.051.

Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Lee, J. Y., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2003). Common method biases in behavioral research: A critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(5), 879?903. doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.88.5.879.

Sarstedt, M., Hair, J. F., Nitzl, C., Ringle, C. M., & Howard, M. C. (2020). Beyond a tandem analysis of SEM and PROCESS: Use of PLS-SEM for mediation analyses! International Journal of Market Research, 62(3), 288?299. doi: 10.1177/147 0785320915686.

Schlaegel, C., Engle, R. L., Dimitriadi, N., & Taureck, P. C. (2015). ?Why not now?? triggers and barriers of new venture creation: A meta-analysis and multinational comparison of entrepreneurs? perspectives. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Venturing, 7, 227?250. doi: 10.1504/IJEV.2015.071482.

Shapero, A., & Sokol, L. (1982). The social dimensions of entrepreneurship. In C. Kent, D. Sexton & K. V. Vesper (Eds.). The encyclopedia of entrepreneurship (pp. 72?90). Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs.

Shinnar, R., Pruett, M., & Toney, B. (2009). Entrepreneurship education: Attitudes across campus. Journal of Education for Business, 84(3), 151?159. doi: 10.3200/joeb. 84.3.151-159.

Shirokova, G., Osiyevskyy, O., & Bogatyreva, K. (2016). Exploring the intention?behavior link in student entrepreneurship: Moderating effects of individual and environmental characteristics. European Management Journal, 34(4), 386?399. doi: 10.1016/j.emj.2015.12.007.

Singh Sandhu, M., Fahmi Sidique, S., & Riaz, S. (2011). Entrepreneurship barriers and entrepreneurial inclination among Malaysian postgraduate students. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, 17(4), 428?449. doi: 10.1108/13552551111139656.

St-Jean, E., & Labelle, F. (2018). Wanting to change the world, is it too much of a good thing? How sustainable orientation shapes entrepreneurial behaviour. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, 24(6), 1075?1086. doi: 10.1108/ijebr-03-2018-0130.

Tran, T. V. H., Duong, C. D., Nguyen, T. H., Tran, T. S. L., & Vu, T. N. (2022). UPPS impulsivity, entrepreneurial self-efficacy and entrepreneurial intentions among university students: ADHD symptoms as a moderator. Journal of Applied Research in Higher Education, 15(2), 473?495. doi: 10.1108/jarhe-12-2021-0464.

Tsai, K.-H., Chang, H.-C., & Peng, C.-Y. (2016). Extending the link between entrepreneurial self-efficacy and intention: A moderated mediation model. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 12, 445?463. doi: 10.1007/ s11365-014-0351-2.

Uysal, Ş. K., Karada?, H., Tuncer, B., & Şahin, F. (2022). Locus of control, need for achievement, and entrepreneurial intention: A moderated mediation model. International Journal of Management Education, 20(2), 1?15. doi: 10.1016/j.ijme.2021 .100560.

Van Gelderen, M., Kautonen, T., & Fink, M. (2015). From entrepreneurial intentions to actions: Self-control and action-related doubt, fear, and aversion. Journal of Business Venturing, 30(5), 655?673. doi: 10.1016/j.jbusvent.2015.01.003.

Vasilev, A. (2022). A business-cycle model with monopolistically competitive firms and Calvo wages: Lessons for Bulgaria. Journal of Economics and Development, 24(1), 80?95. doi: 10.1108/jed-09-2020-0131.




How to Cite

Duong, C. D. (2023). A moderated mediation model of perceived barriers, entrepreneurial self-efficacy, intentions, and behaviors: A social cognitive career theory perspective. Oeconomia Copernicana, 14(1), 355–388. https://doi.org/10.24136/oc.2023.010