A new database on Green GDP; 1970-2019: a framework for assessing the green economy
Keywords:green economy, green GDP, environment, database as time series, methodology, sustainability, sustainable growth, sustainable green development
Research background: Numerous modern indicators are attempting to integrate better economic, political, social, and environmental ambitions to uncover potential synergy, trade-offs, and future views that center around the notion of a so-called green economy. As long as the various indicators are not bounded in one comprehensive measurement, utilizing knowledge of relevant information and statistics that are crucial for monitoring the progress will not give us answers on the progress towards green growth either. Without an adequate measurement framework and robust statistics, the evaluation of the green economy is open to subjective reasoning.
Purpose of the article: This paper aims to offer a strong standpoint for green topics by exploring the concept of Green GDP. The paper introduces a new, updated database on Green GDP for the set of 160 countries from 1970?2019.
Methods: This database is distinctive due to its balanced coverage of two components of the green economy: quantitative feature (standard methodological algorithm) and qualitative feature (opportunity costs) within a common Green GDP accounting framework.
Findings & value added: Standardizing new methodologies and procedures for estimating environmental costs with a statistical foundation provides added value, which we hope will support the creation of reliable accounting and valuation systems for the green economy on a developing "green platform."
Australian Energy Regulator (2015). National greenhouse accounts factors; Aus-tralian national greenhouse accounts. Australian energy regulator and depart-ment of environment of Australia, Commonwealth of Australia. Retrieved from https://www.environment.gov.au/system/files/resources/80f603 e7-175b-4f97-8a9b-2d207f46594a/files/national-greenhouse-accounts-factors-july-2018.pdf. (11.11.2020)
Boyd, J. (2006). The nonmarket benefits of nature: what should be counted in green GDP? Ecological Economics, 61(4), 716?723. doi: 10.1016/j.ecolecon.20 06.06.016.
Brilhante, O., & Klaas, J. (2018). Green city concept and a method to measure green city performance over time applied to fifty cities globally: influence of GDP, population size and energy efficiency. Sustainability, 10(6), 2031. doi: 10.3390/su10062031.
Capoor, K., & Ambrosi, P. (2007). State and trends of the carbon market 2007. World Bank Institute, World Bank. Retrieved from http://documents. worldbank.org/curated/en/416871468138574709/State-and-trends-of-the-carbo n-market-2007 (8.11.2020).
Chakraborty, D., & Mukhopadhyay, K. (2014). Estimates of green GDP. Global Issues in Water Policy, 10, 165?187. doi: 10.1007/978-94-017-8929-5.
Environmental Indicator Report (2018). Environmental indicator report 2018. EEA Report No. 19/2018. European Environment Agency. doi: 10.2800/180334.
Eurostat (2020). Official EU statistical data. Retrieved from http://ec.europa.eu /eurostat (8.12.2020).
GGEI (2018). 2018 Global green economy index. Green policy platform. Re-trieved from https://www.greengrowthknowledge.org/research/2018-global-green-econ omy-index-ggei (9.12.2020).
GGGI (2019). Green growth index; concept, methods and applications. Global Green Growth Institute Technical Report, 5.
Hoff, J. V., Rasmussen, M. M. B., & S?rensen, P. B. (2021). Barriers and oppor-tunities in developing and implementing a green GDP. Ecological Economics, 181(2), 106905. doi: 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2020.106905.
Hussain, Z., Mehmood, B., Khan, M. K., & Tsimisaraka, R. S. M. (2022). Green growth, green technology, and environmental health: evidence from high-GDP Countries. Frontiers in Public Health, 9, 816697. doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2021.816 697.
International Monetary Fund (2020). IMF Database. Retrieved from https://www.imf.org/en/Data (20.12.2020).
Islam, S., & Asad, M. (2021). Forecasting GDP and green GDP of South Asian country for sustainable development. Himalayan Economics and Business Management, 2(5), 51?57. doi: 10.47310/Hjebm.2021.v02i05.008.
Jacobs, M. (2013). Green growth. In R. Falkner (Ed.) The handbook of global climate and environment policy (pp. 197?214). John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. doi: 10.1002/9781118326213.
Kalantaripor, M., & Alamdario, H.N. (2021). Spatial effects of energy consump-tion and green GDP in regional agreements. Sustainability, 13(18), 10078, doi: 10.3390/su131810078.
Kunanuntakij, K., Varabuntoonvit, V., Vorayos, N., Panjapornpon, C., & Mungcharoen, T. (2017). Thailand green GDP assessment based on environ-mentally extended input-output model. Journal of Cleaner Production, 167, 970?977. doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.02.16.
Liu, D. (2021. Application and research of analytic hierarchy process in Green GDP development planning of smart city. Journal of Urban Planning and Development, 147(1), 646. doi: 10.106/(ASCE)UP.1943-5444.0000646.
Menegaki, A. (2021). Towards a global energy ? sustainable economy nexus; summing up evidence from recent empirical work. Energies, 14(16), 5074. doi: 10.3390/en14165074.
Nahman, A., Mahumani, B. K., & de Lange, W. J. (2016). Beyond GDP: towards a green economy index. Development Southern Africa, 33(2), 215?233. doi: 10.1080/0376835X.2015.1120649.
National Statistics (2021). National statistics of all countries included in the anal-ysis.
Nowak, A., & Kasztelan, A. (2022). Economic competitiveness vs. green com-petitiveness of agriculture in the European Union countries. Oeconomia Copernicana, 13(2), 379?405. doi: 10.24136/oc.2022.012.
OECD (2012). Green growth and developing countries; Consultation draft. The organization for economic co-operation and development. Retrieved from https://www.oecd.org/greengrowth/green-development/greengrowthanddevelop ingcountries-consultationdraft.htm (15.12.2020).
OECD (2017). OECD green growth studies. Green growth indicators 2017. Re-trieved from https://www.oecd.org/environment/green-growth-indicators-2017-9789264268586-en.htm (15.12.2020).
OECD (2020). OECD database. Retrieved from https://data.oecd.org/ (8.12.2020).
PAGE (2017). The green economy progress measurement framework. Partnership for action on green economy. United Countries environmental programme.
Qi, S., Huang, Z., & Ji, L. (2021). Sustainable development based on green GDP accounting and cloud computing: a case study of Zheijang province. Hindawi Scientific Programming, 2021, 7953164. doi: 10.1155/2021/7953164.
Qi, S., Xu, L., & Coggins, J.S. (2001). Integrated environmental-economic ac-counting of GDP. Annual meeting of the American Agricultural Economics Association in Chicago, August 5 - 8, 2001. Agricultural and Applied Eco-nomics Association. doi: 10.22004/ag.econ.20582.
Rauch, J. N., & Chi, Y. F. (2010). The plight of green GDP in China. Consilience: The Journal of Sustainable Development, 3(1), 102?116. doi: 10.7916/consilie nce.v0i3.4498.
Sánchez García, J. L., & Díez Sanz, J. M. (2018). Climate change, ethics and sustainability: an innovative approach. Journal of Innovation & Knowledge, 3(2), 70?75. doi: 10.1016/j.jik.2017.12.002.
Sonthi, C., Harnphattananusorn, S., & Santipolvut, S. (2019). Concepts and em-pirical calculation of the green GDP for Thailand. International Journal of Green Economics, 13(1), 68?85. doi: 10.1504/IJGE.2019.101453.
Stjepanović, S., Tomić, D., & Škare, M. (2019). Green GDP: an analysis for de-veloping and developed countries. E+M Ekonomie a Management, 22(4), 4?17. doi: 10.15240/tul/001/2019-4-001.
Stjepanović, S., Tomić, D., & Škare, M. (2017). A new approach to measuring green GDP: a cross-country analysis. Entrepreneurship and Sustainability Issues, 4(4), 574?590. doi: 10.9770/jesi.2017.4.4(13).
Škare, M., Tomić, D., & Stjepanović, S. (2020). Energy consumption and green GDP in Europe: a panel cointegration analysis 2008?2016. Acta Montanistica Slovaca, 25(1), 46?56. doi: 10.46544/AMS.v25i1.5.
Talberth, J., & Bohara, A. K. (2006). Economic openness and green GDP. Ecological Economics, 58(4), 743?758. doi: 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2005.09.002.
UN Database (2020). United Nation UNdata. Retrieved from https://data.un.org/ (20.12.2020).
UNEP (2012). Measuring progress towards an inclusive green economy. United Countries environmental programme.
Veklych, O., & Shlapak, M. (2013). Green GDP as an indicator of environmental cost of economic growth in Ukraine. Retrieved from https://archive.org/stream/ GreenGdpAsAnIndicatorOfEnvironmentalC-ostOfEconomicGrowthInUkraine/ Veklych.Shlapak.GreenGdpAsAnIndicatorOfEnvironmentalCostOfEconomicGrowthOfUkraine_djvu.txt (8.11.2021).
Vimochana, M. (2017). Green GDP calculations in developed and developing countries. International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research and Development, 4(6), 244?251.
Yu, Y., Yu, M., Lin, L., Chen, J., Li, D., Zhang, W., & Cao, K. (2019). National green GDP assessment and prediction for China based on a CA-Markov land use simulation model. Sustainability, 11(3), 576. doi: 10.3390/su11030576.
Wang, F., Wang, R., & Wang, J. (2020). Measurement of China?s green GDP and its dynamic variation based on industrial perspective. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 27(35), 43813?43828. doi: 10.1007/s11356-020-102 36-x.
Wu, S., & Han, H. (2020). Sectoral changing patterns of China?s green GDP con-sidering climate change: an investigation based on the economic input-output life cycle assessment model. Journal of Cleaner Production, 251, 119764. doi: 10.1016/j.clepro.2019.119764.
Waste to Energy in Denmark (2006). The most efficient waste management sys-tem in Europe. Reno-Sam and Ramb?ll. Retrieved from https://stateofgreen.com /files/download/275 (8.11.2020).
World Development Indicators (2020). World Bank. Retrieved from http://data. worldbank.org/data-catalog/world-development-indicators (10.12.2020).