New trends in codes of ethics: Czech business ethics preferences by the dawn of COVID-19

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.24136/oc.2021.032

Keywords:

K20, L21, M14, Q56

Abstract

Research background: The morality and sustainability depend upon the active engagement of all stakeholders. Businesses might have to observe minimum standards via their corporate social responsibility (CSR), but this does not imply any mandatory and enforceable requirements for their internal documents. Crises such as the COVID-19 pandemic magnify differences and might impact the perception and commitment to ethics and modify preferences.

Purpose of the article: Since it is up to each and every business whether it will issue Codes of Ethics or Codes of Conduct (Codes) and how they will project ethical principles, values and concerns in them, it is both illuminative and instrumental to conduct a massive theoretical and literature review, to identify five aspects for exploration of  Codes: (i) human nature (ii) moral values (iii) ethical principles, (iv) reasoning and (v) sustainability pillars, and to perform such an exploration via a case study at the dawn of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Methods: Based on a massive theoretical and literature review, five aspects for exploration have been identified and employed in a case study involving twenty Codes of the largest Czech businesses, while focusing on their preferences. This is to be achieved by a holistic advanced content analysis employing meta-analysis and manual Delphi method with Likert scoring by a panel of experts.

Findings & value added: The case study reveals that generally Codes prefer (i) Socrates´ perception of human nature, (ii) respect and responsibility as moral values, (iii) the principle of solidarity, (iv) social contract and deontological reasoning and (v) the sustainability social pillar. These findings demonstrate discrepancies and inconsistencies between and also within  these Codes, which often paternalistically reject the multi-stakeholder approach that is needed to overcome COVID-19. This litigates for the appropriateness of this new methodology and encourages further longitudinal case studies entailing more jurisdictions and industries.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Abend, G. (2013). The origins of business ethics in American universities, 1902-1936. Business Ethics Quarterly, 23(2), 171?205.

Adelstein, J., & Clegg, S. (2016). Code of ethics: a stratified vehicle for compliance. Journal of Business Ethics, 138, 53?66. doi: 10.1007%2Fs10551-015-2581-9.

Allen, E., & Seaman, Ch. (2007). Likert scales and data analyses. Quality Progress, 64?65. doi: 10.12691/ajnr-1-1-1.

Alm, J., & Torgler, B. (2011). Do ethics matter? Tax compliance and morality. Journal of Business Ethics, 101(4), 635?651. doi: 10.1007/s10551-011-0761-9.

Areeda, P. E. (1996). The Socratic method. Harvard Law Review, 109, 911?922.

Armani, A. M., Hurt, D. E., Hwang, D., McCarthy, M. C., & Scholtz, A. (2020). Low-tech solutions for the COVID-19 supply chain crisis. Natural Review Materials, 5(6), 403?406. doi: 10.1038/s41578-020-0205-1.

Arora, B., Kourula, A., & Phillips, R. (2020). Emerging paradigms of corporate social responsibility, regulation, and governance: introduction to the thematic symposium. Journal of Business Ethics, 162, 265?268. doi: 10.1007/s10551-019-04236-2.

Ashford, N. A., Hall, R. P. Arango-Quiroga, J., Metaxas, K. A., & Showalter, A. L. (2020). Addressing inequality: the first step beyond COVID-19 and towards Sustainability. Sustainability, 12(13), 5404. doi: 10.3390/su12135404.

Babri, M., Davidson, B., & Helin, S. (2019). An updated inquiry into the study of corporate codes of ethics: 2005-2016. Journal of Business Ethics, 168, 71?108. doi: 10.1007/s10551-019-04192-x.

Bambrough, R. (2011). The philosophy of Aristotle. New York, U.S.: Signet Classics.

Balcerzak, A., & MacGregor Pelikánová, R. (2020). Projection of SDGs in codes of ethics ? case study about lost in translation? Administrative Sciences, 10(4), 95. doi: 10.3390/admsci10040095.

Banerjee, B. (2008). Corporate social responsibility: the good, the bad and the igly. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.

Belén Lozano, M., Martínez, B., & Pindado, J. (2016). Corporate governance, ownership and firm value: drivers of ownership as a good corporate governance mechanism. International Business Review, 25(6), 1333?1343. doi: 10.3390/ijfs 8020020.

Berkey, B. (2021). Rawlsian institutionalism and business ethics: does it matter whether corporations are part of the basic structure of society? Business Ethics Quarterly, 31(2), 179?209. doi: 10.1017/beq.2020.14.

Blowfield, M., & Murray, A. (2008). Corporate responsibility: a critical introduction. Oxford: University Press.

Bowen, G. A. (2009). Document analysis as a qualitative research method. Qualitative Research Journal, 9(2), 27?40. doi: 10.3316/QRJ0902027.

Bowie, E. N. (2013). Business ethics in the 21st Century. New York: Springer

Bradley, B. (2006). Two concepts of intrinsic value. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice, 9, 111?130. doi: 10.1007/s10677-006-9009-7.

Calderón, R., Ferrero, I., & Redin, D. (2012). Ethical codes and corporate responsibility of the most admired companies of the world: toward a third generation ethics? Business and Politics, 14(4), 1?24. doi: 10.1515/bap-2012-0044.

Calvo, N., & Calvo-Babío, F.( 2018). Corporate social responsibility and multiple agency theory: a case study of internal stakeholder engagement. Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, 25, 1223?1230. doi: 10.10 02/csr.1633.

Carroll, A. B. (2016). Carroll?s pyramid of CSR: taking another look. International Journal of Corporate Social Responsibility, 1, 3. doi: 10.1186/s40991-016-000 4-6.

Cerchia, R. E., & Piccolo, K. (2019). The ethical consumer and codes of ethics in the fashion industry. Laws, 8, 23. doi: 10.3390/laws8040023.

Chassé, S., & Courrent, J. M. (2018). Linking owner-managers? personal sustainability behaviors and corporate practices in SMEs: the moderating roles of perceived advantages and environmental hostility. Business Ethics, 27, 127?173. doi: 10.1111/beer.12176.

Chen, J., Liu, J., Qin, J. (2019). Corporate social responsibility and capacity selection. Transformations in Business & Economics, 18, 3C (48C), 530?545.

Clark, C. E., Steckler, E. L., & Newell, S. (2016). Managing contradiction: stockholder and stakeholder views of the firm as paradoxical opportunity. Business and Society Review, 121, 123?59. doi: 10.1111/basr.12083.

Coatney, K., & Poliak, M. (2020). Cognitive decision-making algorithms, Internet of Things smart devices, and sustainable organizational performance in Industry 4.0-based manufacturing systems. Journal of Self-Governance and Management Economics, 8(4), 9?18. doi: 10.22381/JSME8420201.

Colander, D. (2016). Creating humble economists: a code of ethics for economists. In F. DeMartino & D. McCloskey (Eds.). The Oxford handbook of professional economic ethics. Oxford: Edward Elgar, 737?749.

Collins, D. (2012). Business ethics: how to design and manage ethical organizations. West Sussex: John Wiley.

Cotterrell, R. (2000). Common law approaches to the relationship between law and morality. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice, 3, 9?26. doi: 10.1023/A:1009935 831906.

Creswell, J. W. (2003). Research design: qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. London: Sage Publication.

Crifo, P., & Forget, V. D. (2015). The economics of corporate social responsibility: a firm-level perspective survey. Journal of Economic Surveys, 29(1), 112?130. doi: 10.1111/joes.12055.

Cunningham, E. (2021). Artificial intelligence-based decision-making algorithms, sustainable organizational performance, and automated production systems in big data-driven smart urban economy. Journal of Self-Governance and Management Economics, 9(1), 31?41. doi: 10.22381/jsme9120213.

Černek, M., Horváthová, P., & Kashi, K. (2014). Ethic perception in business and social practice in the Czech Republic. Journal of Applied Economic Sciences, 9(4), 646?659.

D´Adamo, I., & Lupi, G. (2021). Sustainability and resilience after COVID-19: a circular premium in the fashion industry. Sustainability, 13(4), 1861. doi: 10.3390/su13041861.

de Bakker, F. G. A., Rasche, A., & Ponte, S. (2019). Multi-stakeholder initiatives on sustainability: a cross-disciplinary review and research agenda for business ethics. Business Ethics Quarterly, 29(3), 343?383. doi: 10.1017/beq.2019.10.

Demiray, M. R. (2015). Natural law theory, legal positivism, and the normativity of law. European Legacy, 20(8), 807?826. doi: 10.1080/10848770.2015.1078 991.

Denzin, N. K., & Lincoln, Y. S. (2005). The Sage handbook of qualitative research. London: Sage Publication.

Desai, R., & Roberts, R. (2013). De?ciencies in the code of conduct: the AICPA rhetoric surrounding the tax return preparation outstanding disclosure rules. Journal of Business Ethics, 114, 457?471. doi: 10.1007/s10551-012-1329-z.

Dima, A. M., Begu, L., Vasilescu, M. D., & Maassen, M. A. (2018). The relationship between the knowledge economy and global competitiveness in the European Union. Sustainability, 10, 1706. doi: 10.3390/su10061706.

Erwin, P. M. (2011). Corporate codes of conduct: the effects of code content and quality on ethical performance. Journal of Business Ethics, 99, 535?548. doi: 10.1007/s10551-010-0667-y.

Fatemi, D., Hasseldine, J., & Hite, P. (2018). The influence of ethical codes of conduct on professionalism in tax practice. Journal of Business Ethics, 164, 2. doi: 10.1007/s10551-018-4081-1.

Ferraro, F., & Beunza, D. (2018). Creating common ground: a communicative action model of dialogue in shareholder engagement. Organization Science, 29, 1187?1207. doi: 10.1287/orsc.2018.1226.

Finestone, K., & Kingston, E. (2021). Crisis prices: the ethics of market controls during a global pandemic. Business Ethics Quarterly. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1017/beq.2021.15.

Finnis, J. M. (1998). Natural law and the ethics of discourse. American Journal of Jurisprudence, 43, 53?73.

Firtescu, B. N., Terinte, P.-A., Roman, A., Anton, S. G. (2019). Corporate governance and bank profitability. An empirical assessment for emerging Europe. Transformations in Business & Economics, 18, 2A (47A), 531?552.

Fura, B., Wojnar, J., & Kasprzyk, B. (2017). Ranking and classification of EU countries regarding their levels of implementation of the Europe 2020 strategy. Journal of Cleaner Production, 165, 968?979. doi: 10.1016/J.JCLEPRO.2017. 07.088.

Girard, C., & Sobczak, A. (2012). Towards a model of corporate and social stakeholder engagement: analyzing the relations between a french mutual bank and its members. Journal of Business Ethics, 107, 215?225. doi: 10.1007/s10551-011-1034-3.

Goel, M., & Ramanathan, P. E. (2014). Business ethics and corporate social responsibility ? is there a dividing line? Procedia Economics and Finance, 11, 49?59. doi: 10.1016/S2212-5671(14)00175-0.

Golec, M. (2018). Cooperative banks? social responsibility: the lending activities of a group of cooperative banks in Poland. Forum Scientiae Oeconomia, 6(3), 41?52. doi: 10.23762/FSO_VOL6_NO3_3.

Griffiths, J. (2018). Financing the sustainable development goals (SDGs). Development, 61, 62?67. doi: 10.1057/s41301-018-0178-1.

Hahn, T., Figge, F., Pinkse, J., & Preuss, L. (2018). A paradox perspective on corporate sustainability: descriptive, instrumental, and normative aspects. Journal of Business Ethics, 148, 235?248. doi: 10.1007/s10551-017-3587-2.

Honneth, A. (2014). The normativity of ethical life. Philosophy & Social Criticism, 40(8), 817?826. doi: 10.1177/0191453714541538.

Hoover, K., & Pepper, M. (2015). How did they say that? Ethics statements and normative frameworks at best companies to work for. Journal of Business Ethics, 131(3), 605?617. doi: 10.1007/s10551-014-2255-z.

Idowu, S. O., Schmidpeter, R., & Liangrong, Z. (2020). The future of the UN sustainable development goals: business perspectives for global development in 2030. New York: Springer.

Igwe, P., Icha-Ituma, A., & Madichie, N. (2018). The evaluation of CSR and social value practices among UK commercial and social enterprises. Entrepreneurial Business and Economics Review, 6(1), 37?52. doi: 10.15678/EBER.2018.060 102.

Ikonen, P., Luomaaho, V., & Bowen, A. S. (2017). Transparency for sponsored content: analysing codes of ethics in public relations, marketing, advertising and journalism. International Journal of Strategic Communication, 11(2), 165?178. doi: 10.1080/1553118X.2016.1252917.

Jaki, A., & Siuta-Tokarska, B. (2019). New imperative of corporate value creation in face of the challenges of sustainable development. Entrepreneurial Business and Economics Review, 7(2). doi: 10.15678/EBER.2019.070204.

Kant, I. (2011). Groundwork of the metaphysics of morals: a German-English edition, ed. and tr. Mary Gregor and Jens Timmermann. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Kaptein, M. (2011). Toward effective codes: testing the relationship with unethical behavior. Journal of Business Ethics, 99, 233?251. doi: 10.1007/s10551-010-0652-5.

Kingston, E. (2021). Shopping with a conscience? The epistemic case for relinquishment over conscientious consumption. Business Ethics Quarterly, 31, 242?74. doi: 10.1017/beq.2020.13.

Kelley, S., & Nahser, R. (2014). Developing sustainable strategies: foundations, method, and pedagogy. Journal of Business Ethics, 123(4), 631?644. doi: 10.1 007/s10551-013-2014-6.

Kolk, A., & van Tulder, R. (2005). Setting new global rules? TNCs and codes of conduct. Transnational Corporations, 14(3), 1?27.

Kolk, A., & Van Tulder, R. (2010). International business, corporate social responsibility and sustainable development. International Business Review, 19, 1. doi: 10.1016/j.ibusrev.2009.12.003.

Kourula, A., Pisani, N., & Kolk, A. (2017). Corporate sustainability and inclusive development: highlights from international business and management research. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 24, 14?18. doi: 10.1016/j.cos ust.2017.01.003.

Kovacova, M., & Lăzăroiu, G. (2021). Sustainable organizational performance, cyber-physical production networks, and deep learning-assisted smart process planning in Industry 4.0-based manufacturing systems. Economics, Management, and Financial Markets, 16(3), 41?54. doi: 10.22381/emfm16320 212.

Kovoor-Misra, S. (2009). Understanding perceived organizational identity during crisis and change: a threat/opportunity framework. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 22, 494?510. doi: 10.1108/09534810910983460.

Krejčí, P., & Šebestová, J. (2018). Social innovation ties: a dilemma of product and employee orientation. Polish Journal of Management Studies, 17, 123?133. doi: 10.17512/pjms.2018.17.2.11.

Krueger, R., & Casey, M. (2000). Focus groups: a practical guide for applied research. London, U.K.: Sage.

Kuckartz, U. (2014). Qualitative text analysis ? a guide to methods, practice and using software. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications Ltd. doi: 10.4135/9781446 288719.

Linnhoff, S., Russell, H., Smith, K. T., & Smith, M. (2014). A descriptive analysis of ethics codes, CSR, and efforts to combat human trafficking. International Journal of Corporate Governance, 5(3/4), 156?177. doi: 10.1504/IJCG.2014.0 6 4725.

MacGregor Pelikánová, R. (2017). Constantine?s Christianity for the (dis)integrated EU?déj? vu of Constantine?s Roman governance reflecting of the mistrial of Jesus for EU? Dialogo, 4, 81?98. doi: 10.18638/dialogo.201 7.4.1.

MacGregor Pelikánová, R. (2019). Corporate social responsibility information in annual Reports in the EU ? Czech case study. Sustainability, 11, 237. doi: 10.3 390/su11010237.

MacGregor Pelikánová, R., & Hála, M. (2021). CSR unconscious consumption by Generation Z in the COVID-19 era ? responsible heretics not paying CSR bonus? Journal of Risk and Financial Management, 14(8), 390. doi: 10.3390/ jrfm14080390.

MacGregor Pelikánová, R., & MacGregor, R. K. (2020). The EU puzzling CSR regime and the confused perception by ambassadors of luxury fashion businesses: a case study from Pařížská. Central European Business Review, 9(3), 74?108. doi: 10.18267/j.cebr.240.

MacGregor Pelikánová, R., & MacGregor, R. K. (2021). The Covid-19 as interpretation instrument for the content of corporate social responsibility and its reporting in the EU. Lawyer Quarterly, 2, 305?322.

MacGregor Pelikánová, R., Němečková, T., & MacGregor, R. K. (2021). CSR statements in international and Czech luxury fashion industry at the onset and during the COVID-19 pandemic ? slowing down the fast fashion business? Sustainability, 13(7), 3715. doi: 10.3390/su13073715.

MacGregor, R. K., Sroka, W., & MacGregor Pelikánová, R. (2020). The CSR perception of front-line employees of luxury fashion businesses. Organizacija, 53(3), 198?211. doi: 10.2478/orga-2020-0013.

Marrewijk, M. (2003). Concepts and definitions of CSR and corporate sustainability: between agency and communion. Journal of Business Ethics, 44, 95?105. doi: 10.1023/A:1023331212247.

May, A. Y. C., Hao, G. S., & Carter, S. (2021). Intertwining corporate social responsibility, employee green behavior and environmental sustainability: the mediation effect of organizational trust and organizational identity. Economics, Management, and Financial Markets, 16(2), 32?61. doi: 10.22381/emfm16220 212.

McCorquodale, R. (2009). Corporate social responsibility and international human rights law. Journal of Business Ethics, 87, 385?400. doi: 10.1007/sl0551-009-0296-5.

McDonald, G. (2009). An anthology of codes of ethics. European Business Review, 21, 344?372. doi: 10.1108/09555340910970445.

Meadows, D. L., Randers, J., & Behrens, W. W. (1972). The limits to growth. New York: Universe Books.

Messikomer, C. M, & Circa, C. C. (2010). Constructing a code of ethics: an experiential case of a national professional organization. Journal of Business Ethics, 95, 55?71. doi: 10.1007/s10551-009-0347-y.

Metzker, Z., & Streimikis, J. (2020). CSR activities in the Czech SME segment. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Knowledge, 8(1), 49?64. doi: 10.373 35/ijek.v8i2.101.

Mridula, G., & Ramanathan, E. P. (2014). Business ethics and corporate social responsibility ? is there a dividing line? Procedia Economics and Finance, 11(1), 49?59. doi: 10.1016/S2212-5671(14)00175-0C.

Nesadurai, H. E. S. (2013). Food security, the palm oil-land conflict nexus, and sustainability: a governance role for a private multi-stakeholder regime like the RSPO? Pacific Review, 26, 505?529. doi: 10.1080/09512748.2013.842311.

Nicolaides, A. (2016). Moral intensity and service delivery in the hospitality industry: the value of codes of ethics. Journal of Economics, 7(2-3,) 73?84. doi: 10.1 080/09765239.2016.11907823.

Nonet, G., Kassel, K., & Meijs, L. (2016). Understanding responsible management: emerging themes and variations from European business school programs. Journal of Business Ethics, 139, 717?736. doi: 10.1007/s10551-016-31 49-z.

Oladinrin, O. T., & Ho, C. M. F. (2016). Critical enablers for codes of ethics implementation in construction organizations. Journal of Management in Engineering, 32(1), 1?10. doi: 10.1061/(ASCE)ME.1943-5479.0000385.

Olšanová, K., Gook, G., & Zlatić, M. (2018). Influence of luxury Companies? corporate social responsibility activities on consumer purchase intention: development of theoretical framework. Central European Business Review, 7(3), 1?25. doi: 10.18267/j.cebr.200.

Pabian, A. M. (2019). University social responsibility in the opinion of students. Forum Scientiae Oeconomia, 7(4), 101?117. doi: 10.23762/FSOVOL7NO47.

Pantazopoulos, S. E. (2014). Towards a coherent framework of transnational corporations? responsibility in international environmental law. Yearbook of International Environmental Law, 24(1), 131?165. doi: 10.1093/yiel/yvu059.

Pasricha, P., Singh, B., & Verma, P. (2018). Ethical leadership, organic organizational cultures and corporate social responsibility: an empirical study in social enterprises. Journal of Business Ethics, 151, 941?958. doi: 10.1007/s10551-017-3568-5.

Patton, M. Q. (1990). Qualitative evaluation and research methods. Newbury Park: Sage.

Payne, D., & Rayborn, C. (2001). Sustainable development: the ethics, support the economics. Journal of Business Ethics, 32(2), 157?168. doi: 10.1023/A:10107 26830191.

Perez-Batres, L. A., Doh, J. P., Miller, V. V., & Pisani, M. J. (2012). Stakeholder pressures as determinants of CSR strategic choice: why do firms choose symbolic versus substantive self-regulatory codes of conduct? Journal of Business Ethics, 110, 157?172. doi: 10.1007/s10551-012-1419-y.

Pettit, P. (2019). Social norms and the internal point of view: an elaboration of Hart?s genealogy of law. Oxford Journal of Legal Studies, 39(2), 229?258. doi: 10.1093/ojls/gqy039.

Pfordten, D. (2012). Five elements of normative ethics - a general theory of normative individualism. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice, 15, 10. doi: 10.1007 /s10677-011-9299-2.

Phillips, R., Schrempf-Stirling, J., & Stutz, C. (2020). The past, history, and corporate social responsibility. Journal of Business Ethics, 166, 203?213. doi: 10.10 07/s10551-019-04319-0.

Pino, G. (2014). Positivism, legal validity, and the separation of law and morals. Ratio Juris, 27, 190?217. doi: 10.1111/raju.12044.

Pisani, N., Kourula, A., Kolk, A., & Meijer, R. (2017). How global is international CSR research? Insights and recommendations from a systematic review. Journal of World Business, 52(5), 591?614. doi: 10.1016/j.jwb.2017.05.003.

Plank, A., & Teichmann, K. (2018). A facts panel on corporate social and environmental behavior: decreasing information asymmetries between producers and consumers through product labeling. Journal of Cleaner Production, 177, 868?877. doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.12.195.

Polcyn, J., Stępień, S., & Czyżewski, B. (2019). The measurement of the quality of the environment and its determinants in Poland and in the regional perspective. Annales Universitatis Apulensis Series Oeconomica, 21(2), 11?21. doi: 10.293 02/oeconomica.2019.21.2.1.

Porter, M. E., & Kramer, M. R. (2019). Creating shared value. In Managing sustainable business. Berlin/Heidelberg: Springer.

Rawls, J. (1971). A theory of justice. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Ritchie, J., & Lewis, J. (2003). Qualitative research practise: a guide for social science students and researchers. London: Sage Publications.

Rodriguez-Fernandez, M. (2016). Social responsibility and financial performance: the role of good corporate governance. Business Research Quarterly, 19(2), 137?151. doi: 10.1016/j.brq.2015.08.001.

Sama, L. (2006). Interactive effects of external environmental conditions and internal firm characteristics on MNEs? choice of strategy in the development of a code of conduct. Business Ethics Quarterly, 16(2), 137?165. doi: 10.2307/38 57819.

Sanford, C. (2011). The responsible business. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Schaltegger, S., Beckmann, M., & Hockerts, K. (2018). Collaborative entrepreneurship for sustainability: creating solutions in light of the UN sustainable development goals. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Venturing, 10(2), 131?152. doi: 10.1504/IJEV.2018.092709.

Schauster, E. E., Walker, T., & Duffy, M. (2018). Exemplary codes of ethics: a rhetorical criticism of WPP. Advertising & Society Quarterly, 19, 2. doi: 10.1 353/ASR.2018.0016.

Schormair, M. J. L., & Gilbert, D. U. (2021). Creating value by sharing values: managing stakeholder value conflict in the face of pluralism through discursive justification. Business Ethics Quarterly, 31(1), 1?36. doi: 10.1017/beq.2020.12.

Schüz, M. (2012). Sustainable corporate responsibility ? the foundation of successful business in the new millennium. Central European Business Review, 1(2), 7?15. doi: 10.18267/j.cebr.12.

Searcy, C. (2014). Measuring enterprise sustainability. Business Strategy and the Environment, 25, 120?133. doi: 10.1002/bse.1861.

Sekerka, L. E., Comer, D. R., & Godwin, L. N. (2014). Positive organizational ethics: cultivating and sustaining moral performance. Journal of Business Ethics, 119, 435?444. doi: 10.1007/s10551-013-1911-z.

Sheehy, B. (2015). Defining CSR: problems and solutions. Journal of Business Ethics, 131(3), 625?648. doi: 10.1007/s10551-014-2281-x.

Slager, R., Gond, J. P., & Crilly, D. (2021). Reactivity to sustainability metrics: a configurational study of motivation and capacity. Business Ethics Quarterly, 31(2), 275?307. doi: 10.1017/beq.2020.20.

Silverman, D. (2013). Doing qualitative research ? a practical handbook. London: Sage.

Singh, J., Iglesias, O., & Batista-Foguet, J. (2012). Does having an ethical brand matter? The influence of consumer perceived ethicality on trust, affect and loyalty. Journal of Business Ethics, 111(4), 541?549. doi: 10.1007/s10551-012-12 16-7.

Soltani, B., & Maupetit, C. (2015). Importance of core values of ethics, integrity and accountability in the European corporate governance codes. Journal of Management and Governance, 19, 259?284. doi: 10.1007/s10997-013-9259-4.

Somers, M. J. (2001). Ethical codes of conduct and organizational context: a study of the relationship between codes of conduct, employee behavior and organizational values. Journal of Business Ethics, 30, 185?195. doi: 10.1023/A:10064 57810654.

Sparkes, R., & Cowton, J. Ch. (2004). The maturing of socially responsible investment: a review of the developing link with corporate social responsibility. Journal of Business Ethics, 52, 45?57. doi: 10.1023/B:BUSI.0000033106.4326 0.99.

Sroka, W., & Hittmár, S. (2016). Business ethics in Central European countries: the case of Poland and Slovakia. In W. Sroka, J., Hittmár, J. Kurowska-Pysz (Eds.). New trends in management and production engineering?regional, cross-border and global perspectives. Achen: Shaker Verlag, 254?263.

Sroka, W., & Lőrinczy, M. (2015). The perception of ethics in business: analysis of research results. Procedia Economics and Finance, 34, 156?163. doi: 10.1016/ S2212-5671(15)01614-7.

Sroka, W., & Szántó, R. (2018). Corporate social responsibility and business ethics in controversial sectors: analysis of research results. Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management and Innovation (JEMI), 14, 111?126. doi: 10.7 341/20181435 .

Stahl, B. C. (2012). Morality, ethics, and reflection: a categorization of normative IS research. Journal of the Association for Information Systems, 13(8), 1. doi: 10.17705/1jais.00304.

Statler, M., & Oliver, D. (2016). The moral of the story: re-framing ethical codes of conduct as narrative processes. Journal of Business Ethics, 136, 89?100. doi: 10.1007/s10551-014-2505-0.

Strouhal, J., Gurvitš, N., Nikitina-Kalamäe, M., & Startseva, E. (2015). Finding the link between CSR reporting and corporate financial performance: evidence on Czech and Estonian listed companies Central European Business Review, 4, 48?59. doi: 10.18267/j.cebr.132.

Taylor, Ch. (2018). The ethics of authenticity. Harvard: Harvard University Press.

Ting, I. W. K., Azizan N. A., Bhaskaran, R. K., & Sukumaran, S. K. (2020). Corporate social performance and firm performance: comparative study among developed and emerging market firms. Sustainability, 12(1), 26. doi: 10.3390/ su12010026.

Van Schoelandt, C. (2018) Moral accountability and social norms. Social Philosophy and Policy, 35(1), 217?236. doi: 10.3390/su12010026.

Van Tulder, R. (2017). Rescuing the collaborative paradigm from its supporters? Annual Review of Social Partnerships, 12, 27?31. doi: 10.1.1.885.3859.

Van Tulder, R., & Kolk, A. (2001). Multinationality and corporate ethics: codes of conduct in the sporting goods industry. Journal of International Business Study, 32, 267?283. doi: 10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8490952.

Van Tulder, R., & Keen, N. (2018). Capturing collaborative challenges: designing complexity-sensitive theories of change for cross-sector partnerships. Journal of Business Ethics, 150, 315?332. doi: 10.1007/s10551-018-3857-7.

Van Tulder, R., May Seitanidi, M., Crane, A., & Brammer, S. (2016). Enhancing the impact of cross-sector partnerships. Four impact loops for channeling partnership studies. Journal of Business Ethics, 135, 1?17. doi: 10.1007/s10551-015-2756-4 .

Van Zanten, J. A., & van Tulder, R. (2018). Multinational enterprises and the sustainable development goals: an institutional approach to corporate engagement. Journal of International Business Policy, 1(3-4), 208?233. doi: 10.1057/s422 14-018-0008-x.

Vivant, M. (2016). Building a common culture IP? International Review of Intellectual Property and Competition Law, 47, 259?261. doi: 10.1007/s40319-016-0472-y.

Vogel, D. (2010). The private regulation of global corporate conduct, achievements and limitations. Business & Society, 49, 68?87. doi: 10.1177/0007650309343 407.

Von Wright, G. H., & Aarnio, A. (1990). On law and morality. A dialogue. Ratio Juris, 3, 321?330.

Vourvachis, P., & Woodward, T. (2015). Content analysis in social and environmental reporting research: trends and challenges. Journal of Applied Accounting Research, 16(2), 166?195. doi: 0.1108/JAAR-04-2013-0027.

Washburn, N. T., Waldman, D. A., Sully de Luque, M. F., & Carter, M. Z. (2018). Executives? stakeholder values in the prediction of work process change. Journal of Management Studies, 55, 1423?1451. doi: 10.1111/joms.12394.

Weber, J., & Wasieleski, D. (2013). Corporate ethics and compliance programs: a report, analysis and critique. Journal of Business Ethics, 112(4), 609?626. doi: 10.1007/s10551-012-1561-6.

Whitehouse, G. (2010). Newsgathering and privacy: expanding ethics codes to reflect change in the digital media age. Journal of Mass Media Ethics, 25, 310?327. doi: 10.1080/08900523.2010.512827.

Zikic, S. A. (2018). Modern concept of sustainable development. Progress in Economics Sciences, 5. doi: 10.14595/PES/05/009.

Zolingen, Z. J., & Honders, H. (2010). Metaphors and the application of a corporate code of ethics. Journal of Business Ethics, 92(3), 385?400. doi: 10.1007/ s10551-009-0163-4.

Zysk, W. (2020). Fair trade phenomenon and its evolution in Visegrad countries. International Entrepreneurship Review, 6(4), 81?98. doi: 10.15678/IER.2020.0 604.06.

Downloads

Published

2021-12-21

How to Cite

MacGregor Pelikánová, R., MacGregor, R. K., & Černek, M. (2021). New trends in codes of ethics: Czech business ethics preferences by the dawn of COVID-19. Oeconomia Copernicana, 12(4), 973–1009. https://doi.org/10.24136/oc.2021.032

Issue

Section

Articles