Antecedents of green purchase intention: a cross-cultural empirical evidence from Vietnam and Poland




green purchase intention, green products purchase willingness, collectivism, long-term orientation, perceived environmental knowledge


Research background: Even though antecedents of green consumption have already been considered in numerous scientific articles, their findings still remain inconsistent. Furthermore, far less attention has been paid to understanding the underlying mechanism of cultural values, including collectivism and long-term orientation, and perceived environmental knowledge influencing intention to purchase environmentally friendly products, as well as the meditating role of green purchase willingness in the linkages between antecedents and green purchase intention. In addition, some previous studies suggested that it might be meaningful and significant to explore these linkages in the cross-cultural context with different levels of economic development.

Purpose of the article: This study explored the effects of cultural dimension, perceived environmental and green purchase willingness with regard to intention to purchase environmentally friendly products of Vietnamese and Polish customers. Moreover, the mediating role of green purchase willingness was also investigated in this study.

Methods: To achieve the objectives of this research, customer surveys were conducted in two developing countries ? Vietnam and Poland. Two convenience samples of 611 Vietnamese consumers and 301 Polish consumers have been recruited from 03 May to 03 October 2020. The structural equation modelling (SEM) was utilized to examine the conceptual framework and test the proposed hypotheses.

Findings & value added: The research revealed that green purchase willingness became the most influential factor to predict green purchase intention in both cultures. Also, perceived environmental knowledge was found to have substantial effects on willingness and intention to purchase environmentally friendly products in both countries, even though the influential degree in Poland was much higher than that in Vietnam. Remarkably, cultural dimensions were found to significantly affect green consumption in the collectivist culture of Vietnam, while these relationships were not significant in Poland. This study was expected to significantly contribute to the existing literature by boosting our understanding of the importance of cultural values and perceived knowledge environment in promoting green consumption in the cross-cultural context.


Download data is not yet available.


Ahmad, W., & Zhang, Q. (2020). Green purchase intention: effects of electronic service quality and customer green psychology. Journal of Cleaner Production, 267, 122053. doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2020.122053.

Amyx, D. A., DeJong, P. F., Lin, X. H., Chakraborty, G., & Wiener, J. L. (1994). Influencers of purchase intentions for ecologically safe products: an exploratory study. In C. W. Park & D. L. Smith (Eds.). AMA winter educators? conference proceedings, Vol. 5. Chicago: American Marketing Association, 341?347.

Amoako, G. K., Dzogbenuku, R. K., & Abubakari, A. (2020). Do green knowledge and attitude influence the youth's green purchasing? Theory of planned behavior. International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, 69(8), 1609?1626. doi: 10.1108/IJPPM-12-2019-0595.

Anderson, J. C., & Gerbing, D. W. (1988). Structural equation modelling in practice: a review and recommended two-step approach. Psychological Bulletin, 103(3), 411?423. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.103.3.411.

Anita, Z., Dermody, J., Koenig-Lewis, N., Zhao, A., & Hanmer-Lloyd, S. (2018). Appraising the influence of pro-environmental self-identity on sustainable consumption buying and curtailment in emerging markets: evidence from China and Poland. Journal of Business Research, 86, 333?343. doi: 10.1016/j.jbusres. 2017.09.041.

Ayyub, S., Asif, M., & Nawaz, M. A. (2021). Drivers of organic food purchase intention in a developing country: the mediating role of trust. SAGE Open, Advance online publication. doi: 10.1177/21582440211045076.

Bagozzi, R. P., Yi, Y., & Baumgartner, J. (1990). The level of effort required for

behavior as a moderator of the attitude?behavior relation. European

Journal of Social Psychology, 20(1), 45?59. doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2420200105.

Bhatia, M., & Jain, A. (2013). Green marketing: a study of consumer perception and preferences in India. Electronic Green Journal, 1, 1?19.

Bolton, L. E., Keh, H. T., & Alba, J. W. (2010). How do price fairness perceptions differ across culture? Journal of Marketing Research, 47(3), 564?576. doi: 10.1 509/jmkr.47.3.564.

Bong-Ko, S., & Jin, B. (2017). Predictors of purchase intention toward green apparel products: a cross-cultural investigation in the USA and China. Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management, 21(1), 70?87. doi: 10.1108/JFMM-07-20 14-0057.

Bryła P. (2016). Organic food consumption in Poland: motives and barriers. Appetite, 105, 737?746. doi: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.07.012.

Byrne, B. (2010). Structural equation modelling with AMOS: basic concepts, applications and programming. New York: Taylor & Francis Group.

Chan, R. Y. K. (2001). Determinants of Chinese consumers' green purchase

behavior. Psychology and Marketing, 18(4), 389?413. doi: 10.1002/mar.10 13.

Chaudhary, R. (2018). Green buying behavior in India: an empirical analysis. Journal of Global Responsibility, 9(2), 179?192. doi: 10.1108/JGR-12-2017-00 58.

Chekima, B., Chekima, S., Azizi, S., Syed, W., & Wafa, K. (2016) Sustainable consumption: the effects of knowledge, cultural values, environmental advertising, and demographics. International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Ecology, 23(2), 210?220. doi: 10.1080/13504509.2015.1114043.

Cheung, G. W., & Lau, R. S. (2008). Testing mediation and suppression effects of latent variables: bootstrapping with structural equation models. Organizational Research Methods, 11(2), 296?325. doi: 10.1177/1094428107300343.

Cheung, F. Y. M., & To, W. M. (2019). An extended model of value-attitude-behavior to explain Chinese consumers? green purchase behavior. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 50, 145?153. doi: 10.1016/j.jretconser.2019 .04.006.

Chi, T., & Zheng, Y. (2016). Understanding environmentally friendly apparel consumption: an empirical study of Chinese consumers. International Journal of Sustainable Society, 8(3), 206?227. doi: 10.1504/IJSSOC.2016.079080.

Cho, Y., N., Thyroff, A., Rapert, M. I., Park, S. Y., & Lee, H. J. (2013). To be or not to be green: exploring individualism and collectivism as antecedents of environmental behavior. Journal of Business Research, 66(8), 1052?1059. doi: 10.1016/j.jbusres.2012.08.020.

Choi, D., & Johnson, K. K. P. (2019). Influences of environmental and hedonic motivations on intention to purchase green products: an extension of the theory of planned behavior. Sustainable Product and Consumption, 18, 145?155. doi: 10.1016/j.spc.2019.02.001.

Connolly, J., & Prothero, A. (2008). Green consumption: life-politics, risk and contradictions. Journal of Consumer Culture, 8(1), 117?145. doi: 10.1177/1469 540507086422.

Dermody, J., Koenig-Lewis, N., Zhao, A. L., & Lloyed, S. H. (2018). Appraising the influence of pro-environmental self-identity on sustainable consumption buying and curtailment in emerging markets: evidence from China and Poland. Journal of Business Research, 86, 333?343. doi: 10.1016/j.jbusres.2017.09 .041.

Doanh, D. C., & Gadomska-Lila, K. (2020). Customers? awareness of corporate social responsibility in Vietnam and Poland: a comparative analysis. Folia Oeconomica, 1(346), 43?61. doi: 10.18778/0208-6018.346.03.

Ertz, M., Karakas, F., & Sarigöllü, E. (2016). Exploring pro-environmental behaviors of consumers: an analysis of contextual factors, attitude, and behaviors. Journal of Business Research, 69, 3971?3980. doi: 10.1016/j.jbusres.2016.06 .010.

Elsantil, Y. (2021). Antecedents of green purchasing behavior in the Arabic gulf. Social Marketing Quarterly, 27(2), 133?149. doi: 10.1177/152450042110 13467.

Fryxell, G. E., & Lo, C. W. (2003). The influence of environmental knowledge and values on managerial behaviours on behalf of the environment: an empirical examination of managers in China. Journal of Business Ethics, 46(1), 45?69. doi: 10.1023/A:1024773012398.

Furrer, O., Liu, B. S.-C., & Sudharshan, D. (2000). The relationships between culture and service quality perceptions: basis for cross-cultural market segmentation and resource allocation. Journal of Service Research, 2, 355?371. doi: 10.3025.

García-Machado J. J., Figueroa-García E. C., & Jachowicz A. (2020). Sustainable consumption behaviour in Poland through a PLS-SEM model. In W. Sroka (Ed.). Perspectives on consumer behaviour. Contributions to management science. Springer, Cham. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-47380-8_7.

Gupta, A., & Singh, U. (2019). Factors affecting environmentally responsive consumption behavior in India: an empirical study. Jindal Journal of Business Research, 8(1), 16?35. doi: 10.1177/2278682118810274.

Ha, T. M., Shakur, S., & Do, K. H. P. (2020). Risk perception and its impact on vegetable consumption: a case study from Hanoi, Vietnam. Journal of Cleaner Production, 20, 122793. doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2020.122793.

Hair, J. F., Jr., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. (2010). Multivariate data analysis: a global perspective. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education International, Prentice Hall.

Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. (2014). Multivariate data analysis. Pearson New Interntional Edition, Pearson Education Limited, Harlow.

Hair, J. F., Howard, M. C., & Nitzl, C. (2020). Assessing measurement model quality in PLS-SEM using confirmatory composite analysis. Journal of Business Research, 109, 101?110. doi: 10.1016/j.jbusres.2019.11.069.

Hofstede, G. (1991). Cultures and organizations: software of the mind. London: McGraw-Hill.

Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture's consequences: comparing values, behaviors, institutions, and organizations across nations. Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, CA.

Hofstede, G. (2011). Dimensionalizing cultures: the Hofstede model in context. Online Readings in Psychology and Culture, 2(1), 8. doi: 10.9707/2307-0919. 1014.

Holmes, C. (1983). Sample size in four areas of psychological research. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science, 86(2/3), 76?80. doi: 10.2307/3 627914.

Higueras-Castillo, E., Liébana-Cabanillas, F. J, Mu?oz-Leiva, F., & Molinillo, S. (2019). The role of collectivism in modeling the adoption of renewable energies: a cross-cultural approach. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 16, 2143?2160. doi: 10.1007/s13762-019-02235-4.

Hu, L. T., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6(1), 1?55. doi: 10.1080/10705519909540118.

Joshi, Y., & Rahman, Z. (2015). Factors affecting green purchase behaviour and future research directions. International Strategic Management Review, 3(1), 128?143. doi: 10.1016/j.ism.2015.04.001.

Kim, S. Y., Yeo, J., Sohn, S. H., Rha, J. Y., Choi, S., Choi, A. Y., & Shin, S. (2012). Toward a composite measure of green consumption: an exploratory study using a Korean sample. Journal of Family and Economic Issues, 33(2), 199?214. doi: 10.1007/s10834-012-9318-z.

Klimas, P. (2019). Organizational culture models of coopetitors. In A.-S. Fernandez, P. Chiambaretto, F. Le Roy & W. Czakon (Eds.). The Routledge companion to coopetition strategies, Abingdon: Routledge, 117?127. doi: 10.4324/97 81315185644-11.

Kumar, A., Prakash, G., & Kumar, G. (2020). Does environmentally responsible purchase intention matter for consumers? A predictive sustainable model developed through an empirical study. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 58, 102270. doi: 10.1016/j.jretconser.2020.102270.

Kumar, B., Manrai, A. K., & Manrai, L. A. (2017). Purchasing behaviour for environmentally sustainable products: A conceptual framework and empirical study crossmark. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 34, 1?9. 10.1016/j.jret conser.2016.09.004.

Jaiswal, D., & Kant, R. (2018). Green purchase behaviour: a conceptual framework and empirical investigation of Indian consumers. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 51, 60?69. doi: 10.1016/j.jretconser.2017.11.008.

Laroche, M., Bergeron, J., & Barbaro-Forleo, G. (2001). Targeting consumers who are willing to pay more for environmentally friendly products. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 18(6), 503?520. doi: 10.1108/EUM0000000006155.

Lai, C. K., & Cheng, E. W. (2016). Green purchase behavior of undergraduate students in Hong Kong. Social Science Journal, 53(1), 67?76. doi: 10.1016/j. soscij.2015.11.003 0362-3319.

Lee, Y. K. (2017). A comparative study of green purchase intention between Korean and Chinese consumers: the moderating role of Collectivism. Sustainability, 9, 19?30. doi: 10.3390/su9101930.

Le, T. H., Tran, V. T., Le, Q. V., Nguyen, P. T., Tran, T. H., Braunegg, H., Schinitze, H., Braunegg., G., Tra, V. T., & Son, L. (2020). An integrated eco-system for pollution prevention and greening the production chain of small-scale rice-paper production ? a case study from Vietnam. Journal of Cleaner Production, 245, 118785. doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.118785.

Leonidou, L. C., Coudounaris, D. N., Kvasova, O., & Christodoulides, P. (2015). Drivers and outcomes of green tourist attitudes and behavior: sociodemographic moderating effects. Psychology & Marketing, 32, 635?650. doi: 10.1002/mar .20806.

Li, G., Li, W., Jin, Z., & Wang, Z. (2019). Influence of environmental concern and knowledge on households? willingness to purchase energy-efficient appliances: a case study in Shanxi, China. Sustainability, 11, 1073. doi: 10.3390/su110410 73.

Liu, M. T., Liu, Y., & Mo, Z. (2020). Moral norm is the key: an extension of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) on Chinese consumers' green purchase intention. Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, 32(8), 1823?1842. doi: 10.1108/APJML-05-2019-0285.

Mai, S, Ketron, S., & Yang, J. (2020). How individualism?collectivism influences consumer responses to the sharing economy: consociality and promotional type. Psychology Marketing, 37, 677? 688. doi: 10.1002/mar.21269.

Maichum, K., Parichatnon, S., & Peng, K. C. (2016). Application of the extended theory of planned behavior model to investigate purchase intention of green products among Thai consumers. Sustainability, 8(10), 1?20. doi: 10.3390/su8 101077.

Malik, C., & Singhal, N. (2017). Consumer environmental attitude and willingness to purchase environmentally friendly products: an SEM ap-proach. Vision, 21(2), 152?161. doi: 10.1177/0972262917700991.

Maxwell, S. (2015). How culture affects attributions, fairness and willingness to purchase. In J. C. Chebat & A. Oumlil (Eds.). Proceedings of the 1998 multicultural marketing conference. Developments in marketing science: proceedings of the academy of marketing science. Springer, Cham. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-17383-2_67.

Mohammed, A., Homaid, A., & Alaswadi, W. (2020). Factors influencing green purchase behavior among young consumers in Saudi Arabia. Transnational maketing Journal, 8(1), 51?73. doi: 10.33182/tmj.v8i1.887.

Munerah, S., Koay, K. Y., & Thambiah, S. (2021). Factors influencing non-green consumers? purchase intention: a partial least squares structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) approach. Journal of Clearner Production, 280, 124192. doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2020.124192.

Nguyen, T. T. M. (2019). An investigation into the relationship between materialism and green purchase behavior in Vietnam and Taiwan. Journal of Economics and Development, 21(2), 247?258. doi: 10.1108/JED-10-2019-0044.

Nguyen, T. T. M., Nguyen, V. H., Nguyen, H. L., & Nguyen, H. M. (2017). Materialism and green purchase intention: a study of urban Vietnamese consumers. Journal of Economics and Development, 2, 89?106. doi: 10.33301/2017.19.02 .05.

Nguyen, T. N., Lobo, A., & Greenland, S. (2017). The influence of cultural values on green purchase behaviour. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 35(3), 377?396. doi: 10.1108/MIP-08-2016-0131.

Nguyen, V. H., Nguyen, H. C., & Hoang, T. B. T. (2018). Green consumption: closing the intention-behavior gap. Sustainable Development, 27(1), 118?129. doi: 10.1002/sd.1875.

Nguyen, T. T. M., Phan, T. H., Nguyen, H. L., Dang, T. K. T., & Nguyen, T. N. D. (2019). Antecedents of purchase intention toward organic food in an Asian emerging market: a study of urban Vietnamese consumers. Sustainability, 11, 4773. doi: 10.3390/su11174773.

Nunnally, J. C., & Bernstein, I. H. (1994). The assessment of reliability. Psychometric Theory, 3, 248?292.

Pan, C., Lei, Y., Wu, J., & Wang, Y. (2021). The influence of green packaging on consumers? green purchase intention in the context of online-to-offline commerce. Journal of Systems and Information Technology, 23(2), 133?153. doi: 10.1108/JSIT-11-2019-0242.

Preacher, K. J., & Hayes, A. F. (2008). Asymptotic and resampling strategies for assessing and comparing indirect effects in multiple mediator models. Behaviour Research Methods, 40(3), 879?891. doi: 10.3758/BRM.40.3.879.

Prothero, A., Dobscha, S., Freund, J., Kilbourne, W. E., Luchs, M. G., Ozanne, L. K., & Th?gersen, J. (2011). Sustainable consumption: opportunities for consumer research and public policy. Journal of Public Policy & Marketing, 30(1), 31?38. doi: 10.1509/jppm.30.1.31.

Ruangkanjanases, A., You, J. J., Chien, S. W., Ma, Y., Chen, S. C., & Chao, L. C. (2020). Elucidating the effect of antecedents on consumers' green purchase intention: an extension of the theory of planned behavior. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 14?33. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2020.01433.

Rahman, O., & Koszewska, M. (2020). A study of consumer choice between sustainable and non-sustainable apparel cues in Poland. Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management, 24(2), 213?234. doi: 10.1108/JFMM-11-2019-02 58.

Raszkowski, A., & Bartniczak, B. (2019). On the road to sustainability: implementation of the 2030 agenda sustainable development goals (SDG) in Poland. Sustainability, 11(366), 1?20. doi: 10.3390/su11020366.

Ratajczak-Mrozek, M. (2017). Methodology of the empirical studies. In Network embeddedness. Palgrave Studies of Internationalization in Emerging Markets. Palgrave Macmillan, Cham. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-56511-8_8.

Sarigöllü, E. (2009). A cross-country exploration of environmental attitudes. Environment and Behavior, 41(3), 365?386. doi: 10.1177/001391650731 3920.

Shrout, P. E., & Bolger, N. (2002). Mediation in experimental and nonexperimental studies: new procedures and recommendations. Psychological Methods, 7(4), 422?445. doi: 10.1037/1082-989X.7.4.422.

Sinha, J. B. P., & Verma, J. (1987). Structure of collectivism. In C. K?agitcibasi (Ed.). Growth and progress in cross-cultural psychology. Swets &Zeitlinger, Lisse, 123?129.

Sreen, N., Purbey, S., & Sadarangani, P. (2018). Impact of culture, behaviour and gender on green purchase intention. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Service, 41, 177?189. doi: 10.1016/j.jretconser.2017.12.002.

Soyez, K. (2012). How national cultural values affect pro?environmental consumer behavior. International Marketing Review, 29(6), 623?646. doi: 10.1108/02651 331211277973.

Sudolska, A., & Łapińska, J. (2020). Implementation of the CSR concept through sport sponsorship: the case of the Polish chemical capital group. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 20(2), 1100?1105. doi: 10.7752/jpes.2020.s21 53.

Syed, S. A., Chieh-Yu, L., Maisarah, A., Nor, A. O., & Mohd, H. A. (2019). Factors affecting energy-efficient household products buying intention: empirical study. Environmental and Climate Technologies, 23(1), 84?97. doi: 10.2478/rt uect-2019-0006.

Tan, B. (2011). The roles of knowledge, threat, and PCE on green purchase behaviour. International Journal of Business and Management, 6(12), 14?27. doi: 10.5539/ijbm.v6n12p14.

Tan, L. P., Johnstone, M.-L., & Yang, L. (2016). Barriers to green consumption behaviours: the roles of consumers? green perceptions. Australasian Marketing Journal, 24(4), 288?299. doi: 10.1016/j.ausmj.2016.08.001.

Tong, Q., Anders, S., Zhang, J., & Zhang, L. (2019). The roles of pollution concerns and environmental knowledge in making green food choices: evidence from Chinese consumers. Food Research International, 130, 108881. doi: 10.1 016/j.foodres.2019.108881.

Varshneya, G., Pandey, S. K., & Das, G. (2017). Impact of social influence and green consumption values on purchase intention of organic clothing: a study on collectivist developing economy. Global Business Review, 18(2), 478?492. doi: 10.1177/0972150916668620.

Vu, D. M., Ha, N. T., Ngo, T. V. N., Pham, H. T., & Duong, C. D. (2021). Environmental corporate social responsibility initiatives and green purchase intention: an application of the extended theory of planned behavior. Social Responsibility Journal. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1108/SRJ-06-2021-0220.

Wang, P., Liu, Q., & Qi, Y. (2014). Factors influencing sustainable consumption behaviors: a survey of the rural residents in China. Journal of Cleaner Production, 63, 152?165. doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2013.05.007.

Wei, S., Ang, T., & Jancenelle, V. E. (2018). Willingess to pay more for green products: the interplay of consumer characteristics and customer participation. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Service, 45, 230?238. doi: 10.1016/j.jret conser.2018.08.015.

Wróblewski, Ł., & Dacko-Pikiewicz, Z. (2018). Sustainable consumer behavior in the market of cultural services in central European countries: the example of Poland. Sustainability, 10, 38?56. doi: 10.3390/su10113856.

Yadav, R., & Pathak, G. S. (2016). Young consumers' intention towards buying green products in a developing nation: extending the theory of planned behavior. Journal of Cleaner Production, 135, 732?739. doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2016 .06.120.

Yadav, R., & Pathak, G. S. (2017). Determinants of consumers' green purchase behavior in a developing nation: applying and extending the theory of planned behavior. Ecological Economics, 134, 144?122. doi: 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2016.1 2.019.

Yagi, M., & Kokubu, K. (2020). A framework of sustainable consumption and production from the production perspective: application to Thailand and Vietnam. Journal of Cleaner Production, 276, 124160. doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2 020.124160.

Zhang, B. Fu, Z., Huang, J., Wang, J., Xu, S., & Zhang, L. (2018). Consumers' perceptions, purchase intention, and willingness to pay a premium price for safe vegetables: a case study of Beijing, China. Journal of Cleaner Production, 197(1), 1498?1507. doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.06.273.




How to Cite

Cong Doanh, D., Gadomska-Lila, K., & Thi Loan, L. (2021). Antecedents of green purchase intention: a cross-cultural empirical evidence from Vietnam and Poland. Oeconomia Copernicana, 12(4), 935–971.