Gender difference in corporate social responsibility implementation in Lithuanian SMEs

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.24136/oc.2020.023

Keywords:

Corporate Social Responsibility, perceptions of CSR, gender diversity, senior managers, SMEs

Abstract

Research background: There are many scientific papers dealing with the challenges of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) implementation at the company level. However, there are few studies dealing with gender difference between female and male managers in the perception towards CSR initiative.

Purpose of the article: To understand the differences between male and female managers? behaviour in the process of CSR implementation in companies.

Methods: A survey of managers at different levels in Lithuanian Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) was performed in 2019.  The study focused on the female and male respondents? answers to the participation in CSR implementation, their perception about CSR implementation and the most important issues for them in that process.

Findings & Value added: The results of the study indicated that, compared to their male counterparts, female respondents highlighted different factors having impact on successful implementation of CSR initiatives. Female managers were more convinced to the benefits of CSR practices than their male counter-parts. The ?Communication skills? were defined as the most important for implementing CSR strategy for the females and ?Understanding of CSR strategy? for males. For most of the female managers, ?Sociality? was the most important competence necessary for a leader, followed by ?Global and holistic thinking?, however, the male respondents were more doubtful about all the necessary competencies for a sustainability leader. The main theoretical value added of the paper is elicitation of the differences between male and female managers in the perception of CSR initiatives and necessary skills of a leader for implementing these initiatives in SMEs. The practical and managerial im-plications  were also provided for the strengthening of the CSR activities in SMEs.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Ali, M., Ng, Y. L., & Kulik, C. T. (2014). Board age and gender diversity: a test of competing linear and curvilinear predictions. Journal of Business Ethics, 125(3).

Atakan, M. G. S., Burnaz, S., & Topcu, Y. I. (2008). An empirical investigation of the ethical perceptions of future managers with a special emphasis on gender – Turkish case. Journal of Business Ethics, 82. doi: 10.1007/s10551-007-9577-z.

Azmat, F., & Rentschler, R. (2017). Gender and ethnic diversity on boards and corporate responsibility: the case of the arts sector. Journal of Business Ethics, 141. doi: 10.1007/s10551-015-2707-0.

Bear, S., Rahman, N., & Post, C. (2010). The impact of board diversity and gender composition on corporate social responsibility and firm reputation. Journal of Business Ethics, 97. doi: 10.1007/s10551-010-0505-2.

Ben-Amar, W., Chang, M., & McIlkenny, P. (2017). Board gender diversity and corporate response to sustainability initiatives: evidence from the carbon disclosure project. Journal of Business Ethics, 142. doi: 10.1007/s10551-015-275 9-1.

Ben-Amar, W., Francoeur, C., Hafsi, T., & Labelle, R. (2013). What makes better boards? A closer look at diversity and ownership. British Journal of Management, 24(1). doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8551.2011.00789.x.

Bernardi, R. A., & Threadgill, V. H. (2010). Women directors and corporate social responsibility. EJBO Electronic Journal of Business Ethics and Organization Studies, 15(2).

Boulouta, I. (2013). Hidden connections: the link between board gender diversity and corporate social performance. Journal of Business Ethics, 113. doi: 10.1007/s10551-012-1293-7.

Calabrese, A., Costa, R., & Rosati, F. (2016). Gender differences in customer expectations and perceptions of corporate social responsibility. Journal of Cleaner Production, 116. doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2015.12.100.

Chan, J., Doran, S., & Marel, C. (2010). Doing and undoing gender in policing. Theoretical Criminology, 14(4). doi: 10.1177/1362480610376408.

Erhardt, N. L., Werbel, J. D., & Shrader, C. B. (2003). Board of director diversity and firm financial performance. Corporate Governance, 11(2). doi: 10.1111/14 67-8683.00011.

Epitropaki, O., & Martin, R. (1999). The impact of relational demography on the quality of leader‐member exchanges and employees’ work attitudes and well‐being. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 72(2). doi: 10.1348/096317999166635.

Fatma, M., Rahman, Z., & Khan, I. (2015). Building company reputation and brand equity through CSR: the mediating role of trust. International Journal of Bank Marketing, 33(6). doi: 10.1108/IJBM-11-2014-0166.

Fernandez-Feijoo, B., Romero, S., & Ruiz-Blanco, S. (2014). Women on boards: do they affect sustainability reporting? Corporate Social Rsponsibility and Environmental Management, 21(6). doi: 10.1002/csr.1329.

Galbreath, J. (2018). Do boards of directors influence corporate sustainable development? An attention-based analysis. Business Strategy and the Environment, 27(6). doi: 10.1002/bse.1879.

Garry, T., & Harwood, T. (2017). Exploring consumer associations between corporate reputation, corporate sustainability, and product attributes within utilitarian market contexts. International Studies of Management & Organization, 47(3). doi: 10.1080/00208825.2017.1318021.

Glass, C., Cook, A., & Ingersoll, A. R. (2016). Do women leaders promote sustainability? analyzing the effect of corporate governance composition on environmental performance. Business Strategy and the Environment, 25(7). doi: 10.1002/bse.1879.

Grace, D. A., & O’Cass, A. (2002). Brand associations: looking through the eye of the beholder. Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, 5(2). doi: 10.1108/13522750210423797.

Li, H.S., & Chen, P. (2018). Board gender diversity and firm performance: the moderating role of firm size. Business Ethics: A European Review, 27(4). 10.1111/beer.12188.

Hatch, C. D., & Stephen, S. A. (2015). Gender effects on perceptions of individual and corporate social responsibility. Journal of Applied Business and Economics, 17(3). doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2015.12.100.

Hemingway, C. A., & Maclagan, P. W. (2004). Managers’ personal values as drivers of corporate social responsibility. Journal of Business Ethics, 50(1). doi: 10.1023/B:BUSI.0000020964.80208.c9.

Hur, W. M., Kim, H., & Jang, J. H. (2016). The role of gender differences in the impact of csr perceptions on corporate marketing outcomes. Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, 23(6). doi: 10.1002/csr.1380.

Hyun, E., Yang, D., Jung, H., & Hong, K. (2016). Women on boards and corporate social responsibility. Sustainability, 8(4). doi: 10.3390/su8040300.

Isidro, H., & Sobral, M. (2015). The effects of women on corporate boards on firm value, financial performance, and ethical and social compliance. Journal of Business Ethics, 132(1). doi: 10.1007/s10551-014-2302-9.

Felix, O.U. (2020). Students' perception of corporate social responsibility: analyzing the influence of gender, academic status, and exposure to business ethics education. Business Ethics: A European Review. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1111/beer.12306.

Lee, E. M., Park, S. Y., & Lee, H. J. (2013). Employee perception of csr activities: its antecedents and consequences. Journal of Business Research, 66(10). doi: 10.1016/j.jbusres.2012.11.008.

Lee, C., Chang, W., & Lee, H. (2017). An investigation of the effects of corporate social responsibility on corporate reputation and customer loyalty - evidence from the taiwan non-life insurance industry. Social Responsibility Journal, 13(2). doi: 10.1108/SRJ-01-2016-0006.

Li, J., Zhao, F., Chen, S., Jiang, W., Liu, T., & Shi, S. (2017). Gender diversity on boards and firms’ environmental policy. Business Strategy and the Environment, 26(3). doi: 10.1002/bse.1918.

Liao, L., Luo, L., & Tang, Q. (2014). Gender diversity, board independence, environmental committee and greenhouse gas disclosure. British Accounting Review, 47(4). doi: 10.1016/j.bar.2014.01.002.

Lu, J., Ren, L., Qiao, J., Lin, W., & He, Y. (2019). Female executives and corporate social responsibility performance: a dual perspective of differences in institutional environment and heterogeneity of foreign experience. Transformations in Business & Economics, 18(2).

Luthar, H. K., DiBattista, R. A., & Gautschi, T. (1997). Perception of what the ethical climate is and what it should be: the role of gender, academic status, and ethical education. Journal of Business Ethics, 16(2). doi: 10.1023/A:1017980 520924.

Perryer, C., & Jordan, C. (2002). The influence of gender, age, culture and other factors on ethical beliefs: a comparative study in Australia and Singapore. Public Administration and Management: An Interactive Journal, 7(4).

Perkins, P. E. (2007). Feminist ecological economics and sustainability. Journal of Bioeconomics, 9(3). doi: 10.1007/s10818-007-9028-z.

Petkeviciute, N., Barvydiene, V., & Surpikiene, N. (2018). Authentic leadership: leader-follower relationship genesis. Transformations in Business & Economics, 17(1).

Neri, S., Pinnington, A., Lahrech, A., & Al-Malkawi, H. A. N. (2019). Top executives' perceptions of the inclusion of corporate social responsibility in quality management. Business Ethics: A European Review, 28(4). doi: 10.1111/bee r.12235.

Rao, K., & Tilt, C. (2016). Board composition and corporate social responsibility: the role of diversity, gender, strategy and decision-making. Journal of Business Ethics, 138(2). doi: 10.1007/s10551-015-2613-5.

Rosati, F., Costa, R., Calabrese, A., & Pederse, E. R. G. (2018). Employee attitudes towards corporate social responsibility: a study on gender, age and educational level differences. Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, 25(6). doi: 10.1002/csr.1640.

Setó-Pamies, D. (2013). The relationship between women directors and corporate social responsibility. Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, 22(6). doi: 10.1002/csr.1349.

Simga-Mugan, C., Daly, B. A., Onkal, D., & Kavut, L. (2005). The influence of nationality and gender on ethical sensitivity: an application of the issue-contingent model. Journal of Business Ethics, 57(2). doi: 10.1007/s10551-004-4601-z.

Wei, J., Wang, Y., & Zhu, W. (2014). Strategically manipulating social reputation by scheduling corporate social responsibility events. Journal of Public Affairs, 14(2). doi: 10.1002/pa.1516.

Zhang, J. Q., Zhu, H., & Ding, H. B. (2013). Board composition and corporate social responsibility: an empirical investigation in the post sarbanes-oxley era. Journal of Business Ethics, 114(3). doi: 10.1007/s10551-012-1352-0.

Downloads

Published

2020-09-17

How to Cite

Lu, J., Ren, L., Zhang, C., Wang, C., Petkeviciute, N., & Streimikis, J. (2020). Gender difference in corporate social responsibility implementation in Lithuanian SMEs. Oeconomia Copernicana, 11(3), 549-569. https://doi.org/10.24136/oc.2020.023

Issue

Section

Articles

Most read articles by the same author(s)