Water scarcity: regional analyses in the Czech Republic from 2014 to 2018
Keywords:water scarcity, regional analyses, Czech Republic, sustainability
Research background: Water is a scarce natural resource essential for life and also many economic activities. Scarcity of drinking water is a problem that is ad-dressed at national and international levels. Global water demand continues to rise, but the quantity and quality of water resources is declining in many regions. Recent surveys of the population of the Czech Republic show that the most serious global problems are waste accumulation, water pollution, lack of drinking water and air pollution. Average temperatures continue to rise across Europe due to climate change and water is expected to become increasingly scarce in many areas. An adequate supply of good-quality water is a pre-requisite for economic and social development, and thus it is necessary to learn to save water and better manage our available resources in this area.
Purpose of the article: The purpose of this study was to investigate to what degree environmental problems ? especially the issue of drinking water scarcity ? have been evaluated in the Czech Republic from 2014 to 2018 and whether the fear of a lack of drinking water has motivated water conservation.
Methods: A regional analysis of water availability in the Czech Republic and the possible causes of water scarcity has been carried out. Subsequently, selected socio-economic factors that could have an impact on the assessment of drinking water scarcity are analyzed using Gamma and Kendall's Tau and logistic regression. The analyzed time period is from 2014 to 2018. Microdata was taken from the Centre for Research of Public Opinion, and selected regional-level statistics from the Czech Statistical Office have been added to this data to supplement it.
Findings & Value added: The perception of drinking water shortages is not only influenced by indicators representing the volume and price of water in each region, but can also be determined by other socio-economic factors such as income, gender, age and education.
Bressers, H., Bressers, N., & Larrue, C. (2016). Governance for drought resilience. The Governance Assessment Tool and Its Use. Springer: Berlin.
Buyukkamaci, N., & Alkan, H. S. (2013). Public acceptance potential for reuse applications in Turkey. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 80. doi:10. 1016/j.resconrec.2013.08.001.
Cogeca, C. (2003). Assessment of the impact of the heat wave and drought of the summer 2003 on agriculture and forest. Committee of Agricultural Organisations in the European Union and General Committee for Agricultural Cooperation in the European Union, Brussels, Belgium.
Cole, M. J. Bailey, R. M., Cullis, J. D. S, & New, M. G. (2018). Water for sustainable development in the Berg Water Management Area. South Africa Journal of Science, 114 (3/4). doi: 10.17159/sajs.2018/20170134.
Czech Statistical Office (2014–2018). Water supply systems, sewerage and watercourses 2014–2018. Retrieved from: https://www.czso.cz/ (20.08.2019).
Davijani, M. H., Banihabib, M. E., Anvar, A. N., & Hashemi, S. R. (2016). Multi-objective optimization model for the allocation of water resources in arid regions based on the maximization of socioeconomic efficiency. Water Resources Management, 30(3). doi:10.1007/s11269-015-1200-y.
European Commission (2012). A blueprint to safeguard Europe’s water resources. Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions.
European Commission (2010). Water scarcity & droughts in the European Union. Retrieved from: https://ec.europa.eu/environment/pubs/pdf/factsheets/water_ scarcity.pdf (15.08.2019).
Fang, C., Bao, C., & Huang, J. (2007). Management implications to water resources constraint force on socio-economic system in rapid urbanization: a case study of the Hexi Corridor, NW China. Water Resources Management, 21(9). doi: 10.1007/s11269-006-9117-0.
Fučík, P., Hejduk, T., & Peterková, J. (2015). Quantifying water pollution sources in a small tile-drained agricultural watershed. CLEAN - Soil, Air, Water, 43(5). doi: 10.1002/clen.201300929.
Fučík, P., Zajíček, A., Kaplická, M., Duffková, R., Peterková, J., Maxová, J., & Takáčová, Š. (2017). Incorporating rainfall-runoff events into nitrate-nitrogen and phosphorus load assessments for small tile-drained catchments. Water, 9. doi: 10.3390/w9090712.
Garcia, X., & Pargament, D. (2015). Reusing wastewater to cope with water scarcity: Economic, social and environmental considerations for decision–making. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 101. doi:10.1016/j.resconrec. 2015.05.015.
Garcia-Cuerva, L., Berglund, E. Z., & Binder, A. R. (2016). Public perceptions of water shortages, conservation behaviors, and support for water reuse in the US. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 113. doi:10.1016/j.resconrec. 2016.06.006.
Gómez-Llanos, E., Durán–Barroso, P., & Robina–Ramírez, R. (2020). Analysis of consumer awareness of sustainable water consumption by the water footprint concept. Science of The Total Environment, 721:137743. doi:10.1016/j.sci totenv.2020.137743.
Government of the Czech Republic (2017). Strategic framework 2030. Retrieved from: https://www.cr2030.cz/strategie/ (15.08.2019)
Gu, Q., Chen, Y., Pody, R., Cheng, R., Zheng, X., & Zhang, Z. (2015). Public perception and acceptability toward reclaimed water in Tianjin. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 104. doi:10.1016/j.resconrec.2015.07.013.
Hallowes, J. S., Pott, A. J., & Dockel, M. (2008). Managing water scarcity to encourage sustainable economic growth and social development in South Africa. International Journal of Water Resources Development, 24(3). doi:10.1080/07900620802163650.
Hervás-Gámez, C, & Delgado-Ramos, F. (2019). Drought management planning policy: from Europe to Spain. Sustainability, 11(7). doi: 10.3390/su11071862.
Hummel, D., & Lux, A. (2007). Population decline and infrastructure: the case of the German water supply system. In Vienna yearbook of population research. doi:10.1553/populationyearbook2007s167.
Institute of Sociology of the Czech Academy of Sciences. The Public Opinion Research Centre (CVMM) (2019). Our society 2014–2018. Czech Social Science Data Archive. Retrieved from: http://archiv.soc.cas.cz (20.08.2019)
Kemp, B., Randle, M., Hurlimann, A., & Dolnicar, S. (2012). Community acceptance of recycled water: can we inoculate the public against scare campaigns? Journal of Public Affairs, 12(4). doi:10.1002/pa.1429.
Kummu, M., Ward, P. J., de Moel, H., & Varis, O. (2010). Is physical water scarcity a new phenomenon? Global assessment of water shortage over the last two millennia. Environmental Research Letters, 5(3). doi: 10.1088/1748-9326/ 5/3/034006.
Leach, W. D., & Pelkey, N. W. (2001). Making watershed partnerships work: a review of the empirical literature. Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management, 127(6). doi: 10.1061/(asce)0733-9496(2001)127:6(378).
Liu, J, Yang, H., Gosling, S. N., Kummu, M., Flörke, M., Pfister, S., & Oki, T. (2017). Water scarcity assessments in the past, present and future. Earth's future, 5(6). doi: 10.1002/2016ef000518.
Liu, J., Daily, G. C., Ehrlich, P. R., & Luck, G. W. (2003). Effects of household dynamics on resource consumption and biodiversity. Nature, 421(6922). doi:10.1038/nature01359.
Lubell, M., & Edelenbos, J. (2013). Integrated water resources management: a comparative laboratory for water governance. International Journal of Water Governance, 1(3). doi: 10.7564/13-ijwg14.
Marek, D., Baun, M., & Dabrowski, M. (2017). The challenge of implementing European Union environmental law in the new member states: the urban waste water treatment directive in the Czech Republic and Poland. Environment and Planning C: Politics and Space, 35(6). doi:10.1177/0263774X16686071.
Marks, J. S. (2003). The sociology of disgust towards the use of reclaimed water. In Water recycling Australia 2nd national conference. Brisbane, Queensland: Australian Water Association, National Water Recycling Forum.
Martínková, M., Hejduk, T., Fučík, P., Vymazal, J., & Hanel, M. (2018). Assessment of runoff nitrogen load reduction measures for agricultural catchments. Central European Journal of Geosciences, 10(1). doi: 10.1515/ geo-2018-0032.
Matos, C., Teixeira, C. A., Bento, R., Varajão, J., & Bentes, I. (2014). An exploratory study on the influence of socio-demographic characteristics on water end uses inside buildings. Science of The Total Environment, 466-467. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.07.036.
Mekonnen, M. M., & Hoekstra, A. Y. (2016). Four billion people facing severe water scarcity. Science Advances, 2(2). doi: 10.1126/sciadv.1500323.
Ministry of Environment of the Czech Republic (2017). Adaptace na změnu klimatu. Retrieved from: https://www.mzp.cz/cz/adaptace_na_zmenu_klimatu (01.09.2019).
Nauges, C., & Thomas, A. (2000). Privately operated water utilities, municipal price negotiation, and estimation of residential water demand: the case of France. Land Economics, 76(1).
Rogers, P. P., Llamas, M. R., & Martínez-Cortina, L. (Eds.). (2006). Water crisis: myth or reality? London: Fundación Marcelino Botín, Taylor & Francis.
Smith, H. M., Brouwer, S., Jeffrey, P., & Frijns, J. (2018). Public responses to water reuse – Understanding the evidence. Journal of Environmental Management, 207. doi:10.1016/j.jenvman.2017.11.021.
Tundisi, J. G. (2008). Water resources in the future: problems and solutions. Estudos Avançados, 22(63).
Tundisi, J. G., & Barbosa, F. A. R. (2018). Conservação e uso sustentável de recursos hídricos. Ângulos da água: desafios da integração. Belo Horizonte: Editora, UFMG.
World Health Organization (2017). Progress on drinking water, sanitation and hygiene: 2017 update and SDG baselines.
Zajíček, A., Fučík, P., Kaplická, M., Liška, M., Maxová, J., & Dobiáš, J. (2018). Pesticide leaching by agricultural drainage in sloping, mid-textured soil conditions – the role of runoff components. Water Science and Technology, 77(7). doi: 10.2166/wst.2018.068.
Zajíček, A., Pomije, T., & Kvítek, T. (2016). Event water detection in tile drainage runoff using stable isotopes and a water temperature in small agricultural catchment in Bohemian-Moravian Highlands, Czech Republic. Environmental Earth Sciences, 75(10). doi: 10.1007/s12665-016-5561-1.
Zhuo, L., Mekonnen, M. M., & Hoekstra, A. Y. (2016). The effect of inter–annual variability of consumption, production, trade and climate on crop–related green and blue water footprints and inter–regional virtual water trade: a study for China (1978–2008). Water Research, 94. doi:10.1016/j.watres.2016.02.037.