Transformation of energy balances with dominant coal consumption in European economies and Turkey in the years 1990?2017
Keywords:energy balance, European economies, links between energy policy and economy
Research background: Energy policy is closely linked to economic development. Therefore, its optimization is an important issue especially in the contemporary European environmental conditions. EU regulations enforce a reduction of carbon dioxide emissions and the abandonment of non-renewable energy resources. Instead, they promote renewable energy sources. In this way, new legal and environmental circumstances are becoming the main reason for the transformation of energy balances, which is a real economic and technological challenge. This transformation requires a strategic and effective approach, especially in those countries which until now have used mainly hard coal in the energy sector.
Purpose of the article: According to above justification, the main purpose of the article is to identify the strategies for the transformation of energy balances that were implemented in the years 1990?2017 by chosen European countries and Turkey.
Methods: The study period covers the years 1990?2017, and the subject of the research at first applies to all European countries, and then to 7 countries selected due to their high share of bituminous coal in energy balance in the first year of the analysis, treated as the initial point of transformation (1990). As a result of this selection, 6 EU members and Turkey with the largest share of coal in energy production in the year 1990 are examined. Particularly, an analysis of the trends in their energy balances in the years 1990?2017 is conducted. The research uses data on non-renewable energy consumption and renewable energy resources and the total energy consumption. The research methodology includes: analysis of the structure and dynamics, evaluation of trends and comparative analysis and presentation of development strategies. At the end of the article, a comparative analysis is carried out, the economic consequences of identified changes are assessed, and recommendations are formulated aimed at optimizing the structure of the energy balance in the future.
Findings & Value added: Generally, there are four theoretical and empirical patterns of transformation strategies of energy balances with dominant coal consumption: 1) using other non-renewable energy resources; 2) replacing non-renewable energy resources with renewable ones; 3) using nuclear energy instead of coal; 4) increasing coal consumption as available and efficient energy resource. It was found that the examined countries implement mainly the strategy in which the decreasing share of coal is made up for by an increasing share of gas. Additionally, we can observe an increase in the share of nuclear energy in France, the Czech Republic and the United Kingdom. In Spain and Germany, despite the use of nuclear power plants for the production of energy, the share of nuclear energy in the energy balances has systematically decreased in time. In all analyzed countries, we can also observe an increasing share of renewable sources in energy balances, however, this growth is very slow.
Bąk, P., & Michalak, A. (2018).The problem of managers' remuneration in state-owned enterprises in the context of corporate governance. Mineral Resources Management=Gospodarka Surowcami Mineralnymi, 34(1).
Chen, J., Zhou, Ch., Wang, S., & Li, S. (2018). Impacts of energy consumption structure, energy intensity, economic growth, urbanization on PM2.5 concentrations in countries globally. Applied Energy, 230. doi: 10.1016/j.apenergy. 2018.08.089.
Chomakhidze, D., Tskhakaia, K., Zivzivazde, L., Moseshvili, T., & Shamaevi, D. (2018). Electricity balance of Georgia: trends and prospects. Energy Procedia, 147. doi: 10.1016/j.egypro.2018.07.074.
Dubiński, J., & Turek, M. (2017). Mining, mining … and what’s next? Przegląd Górniczy, 73(1).
Elshurafa, A., M., Albardi, S. R., Bigerna, S., & Bollino, C. A. (2018). Estimating the learning curve of solar PV balance–of–system for over 20 countries: Implications and policy recommendations. Journal of Cleaner Production, 196.
Gawlik, L. (Ed.) (2013). Coal for the Polish energy sector in the perspective of 2050 - scenario analyzes. Katowice: Wydawnictwo Instytutu Gospodarki Surowcami Mineralnymi i Energią PAN.
Hąbek, P., & Wolniak, R. (2016). Assessing the quality of corporate social responsibility reports: the case of reporting practices in selected European Union member states. Quality & Quantity, 50(1).
Jonek-Kowalska, I., (Ed.) (2015). Forecasting of import and export of hard coal in Poland in the aspect of national and international conditions. Warszawa: CeDeWu.
Kmieciak, R. & Michna, A. (2018). Knowledge management orientation, innovativeness, and competitive intensity: evidence from Polish SMEs. Knowledge Management Research & Practice, 16(4). doi: 10.1080/14778238.2018.1514 997.
Kowalska-Styczeń, A., Malarz, K., & Paradowski K. (2018). Model of knowledge transfer within an organization. JASSS Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, 21(2).
Kudełko, M. (Ed.) (2008). Scenarios for the development of the domestic hard coal sector until 2020 - technological foresight. Kraków: Wydawnictwo IGSMiE PAN.
Kudełko, M., Suwała, W., & Kamiński J. (2008). Variant forecasts of hard coal supplies for the country's economy by 2020. Mineral Resources Management=Gospodarka Surowcami Mineralnymi, 24(2/1).
Lee, N. C., Leal, V. M. S., Dias L. C. (2018). Identification of objectives for national energy planning in developing countries. Energy Strategy Reviews, 21. doi: 10.1016/j.esr.2018.05.004.
Lupton, R. C., & Cullen, J. M. (2018). Useful energy balance for the UK: An uncertainty analysis. Applied Energy, 228. doi: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2018.06.063.
Matsumoto, K., Doumpos, M., & Andriosopoulos, K. (2018). Historical energy security performance in EU countries. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 82(2). doi: 10.1016/j.rser.2017.06.058.
Michalak, A., & Dziugiewicz S. (2018). Development limitations and perspectives of renewable energy sources in Poland. Management Systems in Production Engineering, 26(4).
Moutinho, V., Madaleno, M., Inglesi-Lotz, R., & Dogan, E. (2018). Factors affecting CO2 emissions in top countries on renewable energies: a LMDI decomposition application. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 90(C).
Papież, M., Śmiech, S., & Frodyma, K. (2018). Determinants of renewable energy development in the EU countries. A 20-year perspective. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 91. doi: 10.1016/j.rser.2018.04.075.
Ryszko, A. (2016). Proactive environmental strategy, technological eco-innovation and firm performance - case of Poland. Sustainability, 8(2). doi: 10.3390/ su8020156.
Schmidt, T. S., & Sewerin, S. (2019). Measuring the temporal dynamics of policy mixes – An empirical analysis of renewable energy policy mixes’ balance and design features in nine countries. Research Policy, 48(10). doi: 10.1016/j.respol.2018.03.012.
Shahbaz, M., Zakaria, M., Shahzad, S. J. H., & Mahalik M. K., (2018).The energy consumption and economic growth nexus in top ten energy-consuming countries: fresh evidence from using the quantile-on-quantile approach. Energy Economics, 71. doi: 10.1016/j.eneco.2018.02.023.
Shahsavari, A., & Akbari, M. (2018). Potential of solar energy in developing countries for reducing energy-related emissions. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 90. doi: 10.1016/j.rser.2018.03.065.
Sharvini, S., R., Noor, Z., Z., Chong, Ch., S., Stringer, L., C., & Yusuf, R. O. (2018). Energy consumption trends and their linkages with renewable energy policies in East and Southeast Asian countries: Challenges and opportunities. Sustainable Environment Research, 28(6). doi: 10.1016/j.serj.2018.08.006.
Spałek, S. (2014). Finding a new way to increase project management efficiency in terms of time reduction. Engineering Economics, 25(5). doi: 10.5755/j01.ee.25. 5.8419.
Stankiewicz-Mróz, A. (2015). Approach to the issues of leadership in the processes of companies’ acquisitions. Procedia Manufacturing, 3. doi: 10.1016/j.promfg. 2015.07.332.
Szymonik, A., & Bielecki, M. (2013). Total logistic management – as condition of functioning of the logistically efficient company. In Proceedings of Carpathian Logistics Congress 2013. Retrieved form http://blmm-conference.com/wp-content/uploads/BLIMM1707.pdf 212-217.
Turek, M. (Ed.) (2008). Scenariusze technologiczne przemysłu wydobywczego węgla kamiennego. Katowice: Główny Instytut Górnictwa.
Turek, M., Jonek-Kowalska, I., & Hysa, B. (2015). Prognoza produkcji węgla kamiennego w perspektywie do 2030 roku - wyniki badań heurystycznych. In I. Jonek-Kowalska (Ed.). Prognozowanie importu i eksportu węgla kamiennego w Polsce w aspekcie krajowych i międzynarodowych uwarunkowań. Warszawa: CeDeWu.
Vehmas, J., Kaivo-oja, J., & Luukkanen, J. (2018). Energy efficiency as a driver of total primary energy supply in the EU-28 countries – incremental decomposition analysis. Heliyon, 4(10). doi: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2018.e00878.
Vriesb, L. (2019). Distributed energy resources and the organized balancing market: A symbiosis yet? Case of three European balancing markets. Energy Policy, 126. doi: 10.1016/j.enpol.2018.11.009.