Tourist development between security and terrorism: empirical evidence from Europe and the United States
Research background: Today’s world is torn between extreme conservatism and duality, in opposition, trying to break the classical framework of freedom in the movement of people. In the context of complex global relations, this impulse, especially related to the travels for tourism purposes, raises new issues concerning the safety and security. The tourism industry has a priority for the economic development of many countries in the world and is a large source of export earnings and, at the same time, an important factor in the balance of payments of a significant part of the national economies in the world. The growing importance of the tourism industry, however, puts tourist destinations worldwide at the forefront of new challenges, one of which is terrorism. In this environment, new relationships are emerging and this reflects on the development strategies, as well as on the financial outcomes of tourism industry which are also largely affected.
Purpose of the article: Respecting the new realities, the study explores the link between the risk of terrorism and the revenues from international tourism. Its main purpose is to investigate the impact of terrorism on the financial revenues from tourism in the European countries and the United States. The research is deter-mined by the perception that the financial flows from the international tourism are the quantitative manifestation of the hidden effects of the terrorism.
Methods: The research method includes a regression cross-section analysis and Granger Causality test. The survey is panel and includes 37 countries from Europe tourism region and the United States from Americas’ tourism region (according UNWTO) for the period 2012–2017.
Findings & Value added: In conclusion, the effects of terrorism on the studied regions have been summarized, establishing dependence between terrorism and tourism, which illustrates a specific creative-destructive reflections of terrorism on tourism with regions particularities.
Ahlfeldt, G. M., Franke, B., & Maennig, W. (2015). Terrorism and international tourism: the case of Germany. Jahrbücher Für Nationalökonomie Und Statistik, 235(1). doi: 10.1515/jbnst-2015-0103.
Ahmad, P. M. S., Chai-Aun, O., & Chee-Wooi, H. (2014). Crisis typologies and tourism demand. Anatolia, 25(2). doi: 10.1080/13032917.2013.876549.
Baker, D. M. A. (2014). The effects of terrorism on the travel and tourism in-dustry. International Journal of Religious Tourism and Pilgrimage, 2(1). doi: 10.21427/D7VX3D.
Basu, K., & Mark, V. S. (2010). Impact of political instability and terrorism in the tourism industry of three Middle-East countries: an econometric exploration. In International conference on tourism, transport & logistic. Retrieved from https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/ef60/6fbd64b50807c84713b9417547b9623816d3.pdf. (25.052018).
Bennett, M, & Bray, H. (2010). The impact of terrorism on tourism. Ecclesbourne School. Retrieved from www.ecclesbourne.derryshire.sch.uk (1.04.2018).
Dasgupta, A., & Wahed, A. (2014). Laboratory statistics and quality control. In A. Dasgupta & A. Wahed (Eds.). Clinical chemistry, immunology and laboratory quality control. Elsevier. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-407821-5.00004-8.
de Hoyos, R. E., & SaraÖdis, V. (2006). Testing for cross-sectional dependence in panel data models. Stata Journal, 6(4).
Faulkner, B. (2001). Towards a framework for tourism disaster management. Tourism Management, 22(2).
Gazopoulou, H. (2011). Assessing the impact of terrorism on travel activity in Greece. Bank of Greece. Working paper, Retrieved form https://www.bankofgreece.gr/BogEkdoseis/Paper2011127.pdf (1.05.2018).
Granger, C. J. (1969). Investigating causal relationships by econometrics models and cross spectral methods. Econometrica, 37(3). doi: 10.2307/1912791.
Petkov, P. (2008). Econometrics. Svishtov: Academic Publishing House "Tsenov".
Phillips, P. C. B., & Perron, P. (1988). Testing for a unit root in time series regression. Biometrika, 75(2). doi: 10.1093/biomet/75.2.335.
Ranga, M., & Pradhan, P. (2014). Terrorism terrorizes tourism: Indian tourism effacing myths? International Journal of Safety and Security in Tourism, 5.
Ritchie, B. W. (2004). Chaos, crises and disasters: a strategic approach to crisis management in the tourism industry. Tourism Management, 25(6). doi: 10.1016/j.tourman.2003.09.004.
Santana-Gallego, M., Rosselló-Nadal, J. & Fourie J. (2016). The effects of terror-ism, crime and corruption on tourism. XIX Congreso AECIT. November 2016. Adeje, Tenerife, Spain. Retrieved form https://www.aecit.org/files/congress/19/ papers/150.pdf (1.03.2018).
Stankova, M. (2011). Competitiveness analysis and management of a tourist destination. International Journal of Contemporary Economics and Administrative Sciences, 1(1).
Stankova, M. (2015). Management and control in crisis in the development of tourism. Entrepreneurship Journal, 3(1).
Teoman, D. C. (2017). Terrorism and tourism in Europe, new “partners”? European Journal of Geography, 8(2).
Vanneste, D., Tudorache, P., Teodoroiu, F., & Steenberghen, T. (2017). The impact of the 2016 terrorist attacks in Brussels on tourism. Belgeo, 4. doi: 10.4000/belgeo.20688.
International tourism, receipts (current US$) (2018). Retrieved from https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/ST.INT.RCPT.CD (13.03.2018).
Global Terrorism Index (2017). Measuring and understanding the impact of terrorism. Institute for Economics & Peace (IEP), Retrieved from http://visionofhumanity.org/app/uploads/2017/11/Global-Terrorism-Index-2017.pdf (13.03.2018).
EViews 10 (2017). University Edition. Retrieved from http://www.eviews.com/EViews10/EViews10Univ/evuniv10.html (2.05.2018).
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.