Entrepreneurial propensity index of university students. The case study from the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Poland
Keywords:entrepreneurship, university student, entrepreneurial propensity
Research background: Promotion of the entrepreneurship has an important role in the society, and the direct relationship between entrepreneurship and economic growth of the country is proven. Universities education should be one of the pillars to build the business environment and the entrepreneurial propensity of the students in the entrepreneurship.
Purpose of the article: The paper aimed to define and quantify significant factors that shape the entrepreneurial propensity of university students and create the entrepreneurial propensity index. A part of this aim was a comparison of defined factors in the Czech Republic (CR), Slovakia (SR) and Poland (PL).
Methods: The survey-based research was conducted with students in the last year of their economic studies on the universities. 1,352 students from 25 universities in selected countries were approached during research. A custom Entrepreneurial Propensity Index was created that was implemented separately for CR, SR and PL.
Findings & Value added: The research brought interesting findings. The aggregated Entrepreneurial Propensity Index in the Czech Republic reached the value of 0.470, which was higher than that of Slovakia (0.424) and Poland (0.412). The evaluation of the quality of university education is similarly positive in all countries (CR: 0.659, PL: 0.589, SR: 0.592). Czech students gave access to the financial resources and the role of macroeconomic environment got a higher rating than Slovak and Polish students. On the contrary, Poland students gave the social environment and business advantages a higher rating than Czech and Slovak students. The evaluation of the personality traits is more positive in Slovakia. The most positive indicator for all students is that doing business enables to make use of own abilities and own solutions.
Andreas, S. (2018). Effects of the decline in social capital on college graduates´ soft skills. Industry and higher education, 32(1). doi: 10.1177/09504 2217749277.
Arenius, P., & Minniti, M. (2005). Perceptual variables and nascent entrepreneurship. Small Business Economics, 24(3). doi: 10.1007/s11187-005-1984-x.
Baryniene, J., Paužaite, Ž., & Cibulskaite, J. (2014). Political and legal initiatives for systemic education of entrepreneurship. Public Policy and Administration, 13(3). doi: 10.5755/j01.ppaa.13.3.8385.
Bekeris, R. (2012). The impact of macro-economic indicators upon SME’s profitability. Ekonomika, 91(3).
Beyhan, B., & Findik, D. (2018). Student and graduate entrepreneurship: ambidextrous universities create more nascent entrepreneurs. Journal of Technology transfer, 43(5). doi: 10.1007/s10961-017-9590-z.
Birdthistle, N. (2008). An examination of tertiary students’ desire to found an enterprise. Education + Training, 50(7). doi: 10.1108/00400910810909027.
Caliendo, M., Fossen, F., & Kritikos, A. S. (2014). Personality characteristics and the decisions to become and stay self-employed. Small Business Economics, 42(4). doi: 10.1007/s11187-013-9514-8.
Cramer, J. S., Hartog, J., Jonker, N., & Van Praag, C. M. (2002). Low risk aversion encourages the choice for entrepreneurship: an empirical test of a truism. Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 48(1). doi: 10.1016/S0167-2681(01)00222-0.
Crecente-Romero, F., Gimenez-Baldazo, M., & Rivera-Galicia, L.F. (2018). Can entrepreneurship channel overqualification in young university graduates in the European Union? Journal of Business Research, 89. doi: 10.1016/j.jbusres. 2018.01.056.
Corsi, C., & Prencipe, A. (2018). Foreign ownership and innovation in independent SMEs. A cross-european analysis. Journal of Small Business and Entrepreneurship, 30(5). doi: 10.1080/08276331.2017.1413751.
Danes, S. M., Stafford, K., Haynes, G., & Amarapurkar, S. S. (2009). Family capital of family firms: Bridging human, social, and financial capital. Family Business Review, 22(3). doi: 10.1177/0894486509333424.
Dvorsky, J., Rozsa, Z., Petrakova, Z, & Kotaskova, A. (2018). Evaluation of state aid for entrepreneurs and their access to financial resources: Students´ attitudes in Czech Republic, Poland and Slovakia. Marketing and Management of Innovations, 3. doi: 10.21272/mmi.2018.3-01.
Dvorsky, J., Cepel, M., Sopkova, G., & Kotaskova, A. (2017). The quality of macro-environment and business environment and university student entrepreneurship – comparison of the Czech and the Slovak Republic. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Knowledge. 5(2). doi: 10.1515/ijek-2017-0014.
Farhangmehr, M., Goncalves, P., & Sarmento, M. (2016). Predicting entrepreneurial motivation among university students: the role of entrepreneurship education. Education + Training, 58(7/8). doi: 10.1108/ET-01-2016-0019.
Fayolle, A., Liñán, F., & Moriano, J. A. (2014). Beyond entrepreneurial intentions: values and motivations in entrepreneurship. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 10(4). doi: 10.1007/s11365-014-0306-7.
Fiet, J. O. (2001). The theoretical side of teaching entrepreneurship. Journal of Business Venturing, 16(1). doi: 10.1016/S0883-9026(99)00041-5.
Gavurova, B., Belas, J., Kotaskova, A., & Cepel, M. (2018). Management of education concepts in the field of entrepreneurship of university students in the Czech Republic. Polish Journal of Management Studies, 17(2). doi: 10.17512/pjms.2018.17.2.05.
Gerry, C., Marques, C. S., & Nogueira, F. (2008). Tracking student entrepreneurial potential: personal attributes and the propensity for business start-ups after graduation in a Portuguese university. Problems and Perspectives in Management, 6(4).
Goktan, A.B., & Gupta, V.K. (2015). Sex, gender, and individual entrepreneurial orientation: evidence from four countries. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 11. doi: 10.1007/s11365-013-0278-z.
Gorman, G., Hanlon, D., & King, W. (1997). Some research perspectives on entrepreneurship education, enterprise education and education for small business management: A ten-year literature review. International Small Business Journal, 15(3). doi: 10.1177/0266242697153004.
Gurol, Y., & Atsan, N. (2006). Entrepreneurial characteristics amongst university students: Some insights for entrepreneurship education and training in Turkey. Education + Training, 48(1). doi: 10.1108/00400910610645716.
Hattab, H. W. (2014). Impact of entrepreneurship education on entrepreneurial intentions of university students in Egypt. Journal of Entrepreneurship, 23(1). doi: 10.1177/0971355713513346.
Heck, R. K. Z., Danes, S. M., Fitzgerald, M. A., Haynes, G. W., Jasper, C. R., Schrank, H. L., Winter, M. (2006). The family's dynamic role within family business entrepreneurship. Handbook of research on family business.
Isada, F., Lin, H., & Isada, Y. (2015). Entrepreneurship of university students in Taiwan and Japan. Management Research Review, 38(12). doi: 10.1108/MRR-06-2014-0131.
Jones, P., Miller, C., Jones, A., Packham, G. & Zbierowski, P. (2011). Attitudes and motivations of Polish students towards entrepreneurial activity. Education + Training, 53(5). doi: 10.1108/00400911111147721.
Kerr, S. P., Kerr, W. R., & Xu, T. (2018). Personality traits of entrepreneurs: a review of recent literature. Foundations and Trends in Entrepreneurship, 14(3). doi: 10.1561/0300000080.
Kolarova, E., & Kolarova, V. (2017). The factors influencing college students´ choice of elective subjects. Journal of Competitiveness. 9(4). doi: 10.7441/ joc.2017.04.03.
Kozubíková, L., Čepel, M., & Zlámalová, M. (2018). Attitude toward innovativeness based on personality traits in the SME sector. Czech Republic case study. Management and Marketing, 13(2). doi: 10.2478/mmcks-2018-0013.
Kozubíková, L., Dvorský, J., Cepel, M & Balcerzak, A. P. (2017). Important characteristics of an entrepreneur in relation to risk taking: Czech Republic case study. Journal of International Studies, 10(3). doi: 10.14254/2071-8330.2017/10-3/16.
Marques, C. S. E., Santos, G., Galvao, A., Mascarenhas, C., & Justino, E. (2018). Entrepreneurship education, gender and family background as antecedents on the entrepreneurial orientation of university students. International Journal of Innovation Science, 10(1). doi: 10.1108/IJIS-07-2017-0067.
Mate, D., & Darabos, E. (2017). Measuring the accuracy of self-assessment among undergraduate students in higher education to enhance competitiveness. Journal of Competitiveness. 9(2). doi: 10.7441/joc.2017.02.06.
Morris, M. H., Shirokova, G., & Tsukanova, T. (2017). Student entrepreneurship and the university ecosystem: a multi-country empirical exploration. European Journal of International Management, 11(1). doi: 10.1504/EJIM.2017.081251.
Plotnikova, M., Romero, I., & Martínez-Román, J. A. (2016). Process innovation in small businesses: the self-employed as entrepreneurs. Small Business Economics, 47(4). doi: 10.1007/s11187-016-9743-8.
Pruett, M., Shinner, R., Toney, B., Llopis, F., & Fox, J. (2009). Explaining entrepreneurial intentions of university students: a cross cultural study, International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior and Research, 15(6). doi: 10.1108/ 13552550910995443.
Robertson, M., Line, M., Jones, S., & Thomas, S. (2000). International students, learning environments and perceptions: a case study using the Delphi technique. Higher Education Research & Development, 19(1). doi: 10.1080/ 07294360050020499.
Silva, A., & Nobre, N. (2018). Students´ entrepreneurial propensity: an exploratory study from a Portuguese polytechnic school. Journal of Entrepreneurship & Organization Management. 7(1). doi: 10.4172/2169-026X.1000226.
Sitaridis, I., & Kitsios, F. (2018). Entrepreneurial intentions in the field of IT: the role of gender typed personality and entrepreneurship education. Paper presented at the IEEE Global Engineering Education Conference, EDUCON, 2018-April 1854-1859. doi: 10.1109/EDUCON.2018.8363460.
Solomon, G., Dickson, P. H., Solomon, G. T., & Weaver, K. M. (2008). Entrepreneurial selection and success: does education matter? Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 15(2). doi: 10.1108/14626000810871655.
Souitaris, V., Zerbinati, S., & Al-Laham, A. (2007). Do entrepreneurship programmes raise entrepreneurial intention of science and engineering students? The effect of learning, inspiration and resources. Journal of Business Venturing, 22(4). doi: 10.1016/j.jbusvent.2006.05.002.
Staniewski, M. & Awruk, K. (2015). Motivating factors and barriers in the commencement of one’s own business for potential entrepreneurs. Economic Research, 28(1). doi: 10.1080/1331677X.2015.1083876.
Tredevi, R. (2016). Does university play significant role in shaping entrepreneurial intention? A cross-country comparative study. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 23(1). doi: 10.1108/JSBED-10-2015-0149.