Regional variety in quality of life in Poland

Main Article Content

Paulina Nowak

Abstract

Research background: Quality of life is viewed as the degree of people’s satisfaction of various needs, especially including material, spiritual, safety-related needs and life aspirations. The aspects taken into consideration are economic, spatial, environmental and cultural ones. Quality of life is therefore determined by various conditions in which a human lives and the source of which is the hierarchy of needs and a value system. At the same time, quality of life can be viewed in terms of collectivity (objective aspect) and an individual’s evaluation (subjective aspect). The former view shapes the existing living conditions and the latter results from the satisfaction from a specific person’s life, experiences and ambitions. The multidimensionality of the quality of life categories translates into difficulties in defining and measuring it, and constitutes an interesting research object.


Purpose of the article: The purpose of the article is to diagnose and evaluate the variety of the quality of life in Polish voivodeships, in objective terms by building a synthetic measure allowing for estimating inequalities in the quality of life of regional communities. It was assumed that quality of life will be characterised by indicators grouped into the following areas: material living conditions, economic activity, health, education and living environment quality.


Methods: The main method used for measuring quality of life is the linear ordering based on Z. Hellwig’s taxonomic measure which allows for organising voivodeships in terms of the quality of life of communities. Additionally, the cluster analysis (Ward’s agglomerative grouping method) was used, which allowed for distinguishing voivodeships similar in terms of the analysed phenomenon.


Findings & Value added: During the realisation of the research goal, special attention was paid to the complexity of the quality of life issue and its measurement in terms of economy and rather important varieties in voivodeships were emphasized. The conducted analysis allowed for distinguishing groups of regions with the highest, high, low and the lowest quality of life.

Article Details

How to Cite
Nowak, P. (2018). Regional variety in quality of life in Poland. Oeconomia Copernicana, 9(3), 381-401. https://doi.org/10.24136/oc.2018.019
Section
Articles

References

Adamska, H. (2012). Standard and quality of life of rural areas population in the view of new paradigm of development. Journal of Agribusiness and Rural De-velopment, 3(25).
Balcerzak, A. P., & Pietrzak, M. B. (2017). TOPSIS with generalized distance measure GDM in assessing poverty and social exclusion at regional level in Visegrad countries. In P. Pražák (Ed.). 35th international conference mathe-matical methods in economics MME 2017 conference proceedings. Hradec Králové: University of Hradec Králové.
Bywalec, C., & Rudnicki, L. (1999). Basics of consumption economy. Kraków: Akademia Ekonomiczna.
Domanski, H., & Pokropek, A. (2009). Regional differentiation of the relationship between the level of education and income. Economist, 5.
Gotowska, M., & Jakubczak, A. (2012). Application of selected methods for the evaluation of the variated quality of life in Poland. IX Kongres Ekonomistów Polskich, Warszawa. Retrieved form https//:www.pte.pl/kongres/referaty.
Hellwig, Z. (1968). Application of the taxonomic method for the typological divi-sion of countries in terms of their development as well as resources and struc-ture of qualified staff. Przegląd Statystyczny, 15(4).
Hellwig, Z. (1972). Procedure of evaluating high-level manpower data and typolo-gy of countries by means of the taxonomic method. In Z. Gostowski (Ed.). To-wards a system of human resources indicators for less developed countries. Papers prepared for a UNESCO research project. Wrocław: Ossolineum-The Polish Academy of Sciences.
Jaworska, R. (2014). Health inequalities across the European union regions: a beta-convergence approach. Comparative Economic Research, 4(17). doi: 10.2478/cer-2014-0033.
Jędrzejczak, A. (2015). Regional income inequalities in Poland and Italy. Compar-ative Economic Research, 4(18). doi: 10.1515/cer-2015-0027.
Kerce, E. W. (1992). Quality of life: meaning, measurement, and models. San Diego: Navy Personnel Research and Development Center.
Kuc, M., & Sobiechowska-Ziegert, A. (2018). Standard of living in Poland at re-gional level – classification with Kohonen self-organizing maps. In M. Papież & S. Śmiech (Eds.). The 12th professor Aleksander Zeliaś international confer-ence on modelling and forecasting of socio-economic phenomena. Conference proceedings. Cracow: Foundation of the Cracow University of Economics.
Kuc, M. (2017a). Is the regional divergence a price for the international conver-gence? The case of the Visegrad group. Journal of Competitiveness, 9(4). doi: 10.7441/joc.2017.04.04.
Kuc, M. (2017b), Social convergence in Nordic countries at regional level. Equi-librium Quarterly Journal of Economics and Economic Policy, 12(1). doi: 10.24136/eq.v12i1.2.
Kusideł, E. (2013). Convergence of regional human development indexes in Po-land. Comparative Economic Research, 1(16). doi: 10.2478/cer-2013-0006.
Lewandowska-Gwarda, K., & Olszewski, W. (2017). What is the best place for elderly people? Analysis of the spatial variation of the quality of life of elderly people in Poland. Polityka społeczna, 10(523).
Local Data bank (2017), GUS. Retrieved from http://www.stat.gov.pl/bdl/app/stro na.html?p_name=indeks (30.03.2017).
Long-term National Development Strategy, Poland 2030 (2013). Third Modernity Wave, adopted by RM on 5 February 2013. Warszawa.
Malina, A., & Zeliaś, A. (1997). On the creation of a taxonomic quality of life measure. Taksonomia, 4.
Mularska-Kucharek, M., & Wiktorowicz, J. (2012). Quality of life of Łódź resi-dents. Subjective dimension. Studia Regionalne i Lokalne, 2(48).
Namyślak, B. (2015). Application of Hellwig’s development model method for studying the culture sector in voivodeship capitals. Wiadomości Statystyczne, 3.
National Human Development Report (2018). United Nations Development Pro-gramme, New York, USA.
Pietrzak, M. B., & Balcerzak, A. P. (2016). Socio-economic Sustainability in Po-land. SEM Analysis at Regional Level. In T. Kliestik (Ed.). 16th international scientific conference globalization and its socio-economic consequences. (Part IV.). Zilina: University of Zilina.
Polak, E. (2016). Quality of life in Polish voivodeships – comparative analysis of selected regions. Nierówności Społeczne a Wzrost Gospodarczy, 48(4). doi: 10.15584/nsawg.2016.4.6.
Quality of life. Issue 2016 (2016). GUS, Warszawa.
Rosner, A. (2011). Spatial variation of rural areas. In I. Nurzyńska & M. Drygas (Eds.). Development of rural areas in Poland. Diagnoses, strategies, policy concepts. Warszawa: IRWiR PAN.
Smętkowski, M., & Płoszaj, A. (2011). Large Polish cities – development chal-lenges and intervention as part of the cohesion policy 2004-2006. Studia Re-gionalne i lokalne. Wydanie specjalne. Warszawa.
Social Diagnosis 2015, Conditions and quality of life of Poles (2015). Rada Monitoringu Społecznego. Warszawa.
Sompolska-Rzechuła, A. (2016). Variation of social development in spatial view. Wiadomości Statystyczne, 1(656).
Strahl, D. (Ed.) (2006). Methods of evaluating regional development. Wrocław: Akademia Ekonomiczna.
Sustainable Development Strategy until 2020 (with a 2030 perspective) (2017). Ministry of Development, adopted by RM on 14 February 2017, Warszawa.
Treaty of Lisbon amending the Treaty on European Union and the Treaty estab-lishing the European Community (2007). Lisbon, 13 December 2007.
United Nations Development Programmme. National Report on Social Develop-ment. Poland 2012. Regional and local development (2012). Biuro Projektowe UNDP w Polsce. Warszawa.
Voivodeship Statistical Yearbook (2016). GUS. Warszawa.
Ward, J. H. (1963). Hierarchical grouping to optimize an objective function. Jour-nal of the American Statistical Association, 301(58).
Wawrzyniak, D. (2016). Standard of living in the European Union. Comparative Economic Research, 1(19). doi: 10.1515/cer-2016-0008.
Zadrożniak, M. (2016). Quality of life in cities. In M. Nowakowska, Z. Przygodzki and A. Rzeńca (Eds.). Eco-city. Society. Sustaiable, intelligent and participa-tory development of a city. Łódź: Uniwersytet Łódzki.
Zeliaś, A. (2000). Selection of diagnostic variables. In A. Zeliaś (Ed.). Taxonomic analysis of spatial variation of the quality of life in Poland in a dynamic view. Kraków: Akademia Ekonomiczna.