The multivariate techniques in evaluation of unemployment analysis of Polish regions

Main Article Content

Anna Tatarczak
Oleksandra Boichuk

Abstract

Research background: The labour market situation is considered to be the most widely discussed part of economic development. However, it should be noted that the unemployment situation of young people (aged 15–24 years) in Poland in general terms seems to be problematic. Overall, the unemployment rate among young people in Poland is significantly higher than the overall unemployment rate in the EU.  Moreover, the situation varies greatly across the regions.


Purpose of the article: Using multivariate techniques as a theoretical framework, the main goal of the paper is to identify groups of Polish regions that share similar patterns regarding unemployment among young people. To reach this goal, first a set of labour market indicators were selected. Next, the authors compared the labour market situation of young people between the Polish regions in 2005 and in 2014. Finally, the conclusions regarding the conducted analysis are explored.


Methods: The initial calculation is based on the concept of the taxonomic measure developed by Hellwig. The final method used to create clusters of objects (across 16 voivodeships of Poland) is cluster analysis. A segmentation of the voivodeships is observed for the years 2005 and 2014, based on selected indicators to determine the labour market situation. The data was gathered from the databases of the Central Statistical Office of Poland and Eurostat.


Findings & Value added: Through the exploration of the advantages of multivariate methods, the nature of youth unemployment is revealed in more detail. Indeed, dendrogram analysis divided the voivodeships into five groups, which are characterized by similar features associated with the labour market. It was found that the groups which emerged in 2005 have a different composition of regions than in 2014; this difference seems to be connected with the economic crisis.

Article Details

How to Cite
Tatarczak, A., & Boichuk, O. (2018). The multivariate techniques in evaluation of unemployment analysis of Polish regions. Oeconomia Copernicana, 9(3), 361-380. https://doi.org/10.24136/oc.2018.018
Section
Articles

References

Antczak, E. (2013). A spatial taxonomic measure of development. Wiadomości Statystyczne, 7.
Balcerzak, A. P. (2016). Multiple-criteria evaluation of quality of human capital in the European Union countries. Economics & Sociology, 9(2). doi: 10.14254/2071-789X.2016/9-2/1.
Balcerzak, A. P., & Pietrzak, M. B. (2016). Quality of institutions for knowledge-based economy within new institutional economics framework. Multiple criteria decision analysis for European countries in the years 2000–2013. Economics & Sociology, 9(4). doi:10.14254/2071-789X.2016/9-4/4.
Balcerzak, A. P., & Pietrzak, M. B. (2017). Digital economy in Visegrad coutnries. Multiple-criteria decision analysis at regional level in the years 2012 and 2015. Journal of Competitiveness, 9(2). doi:10.7441/joc.2017.02.01.
Bąk, I. (2014). Influence of feature selection methods on classification sensitivity based on the example of a study of Polish voivodship tourist attractiveness. Folia Oeconomica Stetinensia, 13(2). doi: 10.2478/foli-2013-0017 .
Boeri, T., & Jimeno, J. F. (2016). Learning from the great ivergence in unemployment in Europe during the crisis. Labour Economics, 41. doi: 10.1016/j.labeco .2016.05.022.
Cárdenas Hurtado, C. A., Hernández Montes, M. A., Gorron, T., & Edwar, J. (2015). A statistical analysis of heterogeneity on labour markets and unemployment rates in Colombia. Desarrollo y Sociedad, 75.
Carlsson, F., Johansson, M., Petersson, L. O., & Tegsjö, B. (1993). Creating labour market areas and employment zones. Umeå University.
Cheba, K., & Szopik-Depczyńska, K. (2017). Multidimensional comparative analysis of the competitive capacity of the European Union countries and geographical regions. Oeconomia Copernicana, 8(4). doi: 10.24136/oc.v8i4.30.
Ciżkowicz, P., Kowalczuk, M., & Rzońca, A. (2016). Heterogeneous determinants of local unemployment in Poland. Post-Communist Economies, 28(4). doi: 10.2139/ssrn.2646569 .
Drutarovská, J., Kovacova, J., Pechová, H., & Podmajerská, K. (2016). Analysis of women's status in the labor markets of countries in the European Union 1. Journal of International Women's Studies, 17(1).
Eamets, R. (2013). Labour market and labour market policies during great recession: the case of Estonia. IZA Journal of European Labor Studies, 2(1).
Gawronski, K., Prus, B., & Soltysik, S. (2014). Analysis and evaluation of the conditions of socio-economic development of the Podkarpackie Voivodeship. Infrastruktura i Ekologia Terenów Wiejskich, (IV/2).
Hellwig, Z. (1968). Application of the taxonomic method to the typological division of countries due to the level of their development and the resources and structure of qualified personnel. Przegląd statystyczny, 4.
Henkens, K., Remery, C., & Schippers, J. (2005). Recruiting personnel in a tight labour market: an analysis of employers' behaviour. International Journal of Manpower, 26(5). doi:10.1108/01437720510615116.
Jindrová, A., & Vostrá Vydrová, H. (2013). Modelling dependence indicators of labor market using advanced statistical methods. Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis, 60(4). doi: 10.11118/actaun20 1260040165 .
Jurkowska, B. (2014). The federal states of Germany – analysis and measurement of development using taxonomic methods. Oeconomia Copernicana, 5(3). doi: 10.12775/oec.2014.019 .
Mačerinskienė, I., & Aleknavičiūtė, R. (2017). National intellectual capital influence on economic growth in the European Union countries. Equilibrium. Quarterly Journal of Economics and Economic Policy, 12(4). doi: 10.24136/eq. v12i4.30.
Madianos, M. G., Alexiou, T., Patelakis, A., & Economou, M. (2014). Suicide, unemployment and other socioeconomic factors: evidence from the economic crisis in Greece. European Journal of Psychiatry, 28(1). doi: 10.4321/S0213-61632014000100004.
Masso, J., & Krillo, K. (2011). Mixed adjustment forms and inequality effects in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. Work Inequalities in the Crises, Edward Elgar, ILO. doi: 10.5848/ilo.978-9-221248-86-6_3 .
Miśkiewicz-Nawrocka, M., & Zeug-Żebro, K. (2015). Assessment of the risk of unemployment in Polish voivodships in 2005–2012. Zeszyty Naukowe Uniwersytetu Ekonomicznego w Krakowie, 940.
Nadiya, D. (2008). Econometric and cluster analysis of potential and regional features of the labour market of Poland. Ekonomia. Rynek, Gospodarka, Społeczeństwo, 21.
Pietrzak, M. B (2014). Taxonomic measure of development (TMD) taking into account spatial dependencies. Przegląd Statystyczny, 61(2).
Pietrzak, M. B., & Balcerzak, A. P. (2016). A spatial SAR model in evaluating influence of entrepreneurship and investments on unemployment in Poland. In M. Reiff & P. Gezik (Eds.). Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference Quantitative Methods in Economics Multiple Criteria Decision Making XVIII. Vratna: Letra Interactive.
Pietrzak, M. B., & Balcerzak, A. P. (2016). Assessment of socio-economic sustainability in new European Union members states in the years 2004–2012. In M. Papież & S. Śmiech (Eds.). The 10th Professor Aleksander Zelias International Conference on Modelling and Forecasting of Socio-Economic Phenomena. Conference Proceedings. Cracow: Foundation of the Cracow University of Economics.
Rollnik-Sadowska, E. (2016). Young people in the European Union labour market. Latgale National Economy Research, 1(8). doi: 10.17770/lner2016 vol1.8.1482 .
Rose, A. K., & Spiegel, M. M. (2011). Cross-country causes and consequences of the crisis: an update. European Economic Review, 55(3). doi:10.1016/j.euro ecorev.2010.12.006.
Saczyńska-Sokół, S. (2018). Supporting NEETs — challenges facing labor market institutions in Poland. Oeconomia Copernicana, 9(1). doi: 10.24136/oc. 2018.009.
Stanny, M. (2010). Spatial Diversification of the Balance on the Labour Market in Rural areas in Poland. Bulletin of Geography. Socio-economic series, 14. doi: 10.2478/v10089-010-0018-x.
Trapczynski, P., Jankowska, B., Dzikowska, M., & Gorynia, M. (2016). Identification of linkages between the competitive potential and competitive position of SMEs related to their internationalization patterns shortly after the economic crisis. Entrepreneurial Business and Economics Review, 4(4). doi: 10.15678/ EBER.2016.040403.
White, A. (2016). Informal practices, unemployment, and migration in small-town Poland. East European Politics and Societies, 30(2). doi: 10.1177/08883 25415602056 .
Wierzbicka, W. (2018). Information infrastructure as a pillar of the knowledge-based economy—an analysis of regional differentiation in Poland. Equilibrium. Quarterly Journal of Economics and Economic Policy, 13(1). doi: 10.24136/eq.2018.007.
Wysocki, F. (2010). Taxonomic methods in recognizing economic types of agriculture and rural areas. Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Przyrodniczego w Poznaniu, Poznań, 108.