A multivariate approach towards the measurement of active employee participation in the area of occupational health and safety in different sectors of the economy





employee participation, health and safety management, safety culture, synthetic measure of active employee participation, factor analysis, sectors of the economy, factor analysis and principal component analysis


Research background: Despite a dynamically growing exploration of broadly understood employee participation, there is still space left for more in-depth or new analyses in this area, and occupational health and safety (OHS) serves as a good example in this respect. In empirical studies, employee participation in the field of occupational health and safety is not treated as a separate element of ensuring safety in the organisation, but only as a minor element of occupational health and safety management, or as just one of the elements building a safety culture.

Purpose of the article: The aim of the paper is to propose a synthetic measure of active employee participation in OHS taking into account the depth and scope of this participation. A comparative analysis of the level of active participation of OHS at medical facilities and in other sectors of the economy was also performed.

Methods: The theoretical model for active employee participation in OHS was tested by means of a survey using the PAPI (Paper & Pen Personal Interview) method. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were used. The developed construct (characterised by an adequately high level of validity and reliability) was used in a comparative analysis of medical institutions with other sectors of the economy with the use of the Mann?Whitney U test.

Findings & value added: This research fills the theoretical gap in the model approach to participation in OHS. It has been found (EFA and CFA analyses) that active employee participation in OHS consists of one dimension (15 items). The model for active employee participation in OHS and the universal measurement scale developed and validated in this study represent a step forward towards the effective and reliable measurement of employee participation. In addition, the research has shown that the level of active employee participation in OHS at medical facilities is lower than in other sectors of the economy. The added value of this paper results from the approach to measuring employee participation in OHS which takes into account the depth and scope of this participation. The tool is consistent with international regulations and standards in the field of OHS, and thus can be used in other countries to assess active employee participation in OHS, regardless of the size and profile of the company or the sector of the economy.


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How to Cite

Boczkowska, K., Niziołek, K., & Roszko-Wójtowicz, E. (2022). A multivariate approach towards the measurement of active employee participation in the area of occupational health and safety in different sectors of the economy. Equilibrium. Quarterly Journal of Economics and Economic Policy, 17(4), 1051–1085. https://doi.org/10.24136/eq.2022.035