Unemployment and labor market policy in Visegrad Group countries
In the recent years, an economic crisis has appeared in most economies. It affected the labor market situation. This article refers to the changes in the labor markets of the Visegrad Group countries. The analysis concerns the relations between the economic crisis, the level and structure of unemployment (taking into account the situation of women and young people as the groups strongly exposed to unemployment), and the level and structure of expenditures within the labor market policy. The article is based on the data published by Eurostat, using the tools of descriptive statistics, and statistical indexes, in particular. The research period covers the years 2007-2012, which is dictated by the availability of comparable statistical data. An analysis of the data indicates that the economic crisis increased the economic activity of the population, which contributed to an increase in unemployment. There is no discrimination against women in the labor market, but there has been a serious increase in unemployment among young people. With the increase in unemployment, the expenditures on the total labor market policy have increased, as have those on passive labor market policies and labor market service. Expenditures on active labor market policies (ALMPs) grow relatively more slowly, which may be especially evident in the case of expenditure on training.
Bardasi, E., & Monfardini, C. (2009). Women’s employment, children and transition. An empirical analysis for Poland. Economics of Transition, 17.
Belan, P., Carré, M., & Gregoir S. (2010). Subsidizing low-skilled jobs in a dual labor market. Labour Economics, 17(5). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.labeco. 2010.04.003.
Blundell, R., Brewer, M., & Francesconi, M. (2008). Job changes and hours changes: understanding the path of labor supply adjustment. Journal of Labor Economics, 26(3). http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/588245.
Cahuc, P., & Le Barbanchon, T. (2010). Labor market policy evaluation in equilibrium: some lessons of the job search and matching model. Labour Economics, 17(1).
Charlot, O., & Malherbet, F. (2013). Education and employment protection. Labour Economics, 20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.labeco.2012.09.004.
Coile, C. C., & Levine, P. B. (2007) Labor market shocks and retirement: Do governments programs matter? Journal of Public Economics, 91.
Golsch, K. (2004). Labour market insecurity and its impact on labour market entry and early career. A Comparison of Germany, Britain and Spain. Retrieved from http://epunet.essex.ac.uk/papers/golsch_pap.pdf (1.12.2014).
Góra, M. (1994). Labour Market Policies in Poland. In Unemployment in transition countries: transient or persistent? Paris: OECD.
Góra, M. (2005). Trwale wysokie bezrobocie w Polsce. Ekonomista, 1.
Jarmołowicz, W., & Knapińska, M. (2005). Polityka państwa na rynku pracy w warunkach transformacji i integracji gospodarczej. Poznań: Wydawnictwo AE w Poznaniu.
Kluve, J., Card, D. et al., (2007). Active Labor Market Policies in Europe. Performance and Perspectives. Essen: Springer.
Kraal, K., Roosblad, J., & Wrench, J. (2010). Equal Opportunities and Ethnic Inequality in European Labour Markets, Discrimination, Gender and Policies of Diversity. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.
Kryńska, E. (2001). Dylematy polskiego rynku pracy. Warszawa: IPiSS.
Kukulak-Dolata, I. (2003). Współpraca przedsiębiorstw ze służbami zatrudnienia. In E. Kryńska (Ed.), Elastyczne formy zatrudnienia i organizacji pracy a popyt na pracę w Polsce. Warszawa: IPiSS.
Kwiatkowski, E. (2002). Bezrobocie. Postawy teoretyczne. Warszawa: PWN.
Maksim, M. (2001). Grupy celowe na rynku pracy w Polsce. Rynek Pracy, 2.
Neumeyer, P.A., & Perri, F., (2005). Business Cycles in Emerging Economies: The Role of Interest Rates. Journal of Monetary Economics, 52(2). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmoneco.2004.04.011.
Pereira, S. (2012). Immigrant workers’ (im)mobilities and their re-emigration strategies. Employee Relations, 6.
Pissarides, C. A. (2000). Equilibrium Unemployment Theory. London: MIT Press.
Rutkowski, J. (2006). Labor market developments during economic transition. Washington: World Bank.
Sa, F. (2011). Does employment protection help immigrants? Evidence from European labor markets. Labour Economics, 18.
Shortland, S. (2009). Gender diversity in expatriation: evaluating theoretical perspectives, Gender in Management. An International Journal, 5.
Tomé, E. (2007). Employability, skills and training in Portugal (1988-2000): evidence from official data. Journal of European Industrial Training, 5.
Verick, S. (2011). The Impact of the Global Financial Crisis on Labour Markets in OECD Countries: Why Youth and Other Vulnerable Groups Have Been Hit Hard. In: I. Islam, & S. Verick (Eds.), From the Great Recession to Labour Market Recovery, Issues, Evidence and Policy Options. International Labour Organization: Palgrave Macmillan.
Wincenciak, L. (2010). Graduates’ Characteristics and Labour Market Entry: Polish Experience. Ekonomista, 6.
Wiśniewski, Z. (1999). Kierunki i skutki deregulacji rynku pracy w krajach Unii Europejskiej. Toruń: Wydawnictwo UMK.
Zieliński, M., & Jonek-Kowalska, I., (2011). Economic crisis in the view of change on regional labour markets in Poland. In K. Malik (Ed.), Regional and local development: Capitals and drivers. Opole: Wydawnictwo Politechniki Opolskiej.
Zieliński, M., Jonek-Kowalska, I., & Sojda A. (2014). Reakcje rynku pracy na zmiany koniunktury w dużych krajach Unii Europejskiej. Ekonomista, 5.