Multi-dimensional analysis of regional investment attractiveness in Poland




entities with foreign capital, foreign direct investments, spatial diversity of Poland, investment attractiveness of voivodeships, cluster analysis, Ward's method, silhouette index


Research background: A given region's investment attractiveness is a set of conditions that depend primarily on the policy of the country that is the recipient of direct foreign investment, encouraging or discouraging foreign investors from making decisions about locating investments in a given area. These conditions include the economic conditions, the infrastructure, the political and legal system, the business environment, and the sociocultural environment.  a foreign investor, the motive for exporting capital abroad is the search for benefits that can be derived from the business activity conducted there, including easier entry into new markets.

Purpose of the article: The main aim of the paper is to distinguish groups of voivodeships (NUTS 2 level) that are relatively homogeneous in terms of investment attractiveness, which is conducive to the inflow of foreign capital and the implementation of investment projects involving foreign capital.

Methods: Distinguishing groups of voivodeships similar to each other in terms of the level of investment attractiveness is made by applying hierarchical cluster analysis. The dendrogram illustrates the hierarchical structure of clusters of similar objects according to the analysed set of variables. The quality of the clustering result is also assessed by determining the silhouette index. Comparative and descriptive analysis of CSO statistics are additional methods used that have contributed to the achievement of the aim of the paper. The research period covers the years 2000?2018.

Findings & value added: The investment attractiveness of a voivodeship is closely related to the level of its economic development. Therefore, the following voivodeships are listed at the top of the investment attractiveness rankings: Mazowieckie, Dolnośląskie, Śląskie, Małopolskie, and Pomorskie. The conducted study has confirmed that the creation of special economic zones and the development of regional smart specialisations contribute to the inflow of foreign capital. It is worth noting that the assessment of investment attractiveness is relative. The comparison of the innovative attractiveness of voivodeships is based on the use of the average value, overestimated by cities, i.e. central hubs, attracting investors. The regional perspective on investment attractiveness using multi-dimensional statistical analysis methods is the added value of the article.


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How to Cite

Roszko-Wójtowicz, E., & Grzelak, M. M. (2021). Multi-dimensional analysis of regional investment attractiveness in Poland. Equilibrium. Quarterly Journal of Economics and Economic Policy, 16(1), 103–138.