Multi-dimensional analysis of regional investment attractiveness in Poland

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.24136/eq.2021.004

Keywords:

entities with foreign capital, foreign direct investments, spatial diversity of Poland, investment attractiveness of voivodeships, cluster analysis, Ward's method, silhouette index

Abstract

Research background: A given region's investment attractiveness is a set of conditions that depend primarily on the policy of the country that is the recipient of direct foreign investment, encouraging or discouraging foreign investors from making decisions about locating investments in a given area. These conditions include the economic conditions, the infrastructure, the political and legal system, the business environment, and the sociocultural environment.  a foreign investor, the motive for exporting capital abroad is the search for benefits that can be derived from the business activity conducted there, including easier entry into new markets.

Purpose of the article: The main aim of the paper is to distinguish groups of voivodeships (NUTS 2 level) that are relatively homogeneous in terms of investment attractiveness, which is conducive to the inflow of foreign capital and the implementation of investment projects involving foreign capital.

Methods: Distinguishing groups of voivodeships similar to each other in terms of the level of investment attractiveness is made by applying hierarchical cluster analysis. The dendrogram illustrates the hierarchical structure of clusters of similar objects according to the analysed set of variables. The quality of the clustering result is also assessed by determining the silhouette index. Comparative and descriptive analysis of CSO statistics are additional methods used that have contributed to the achievement of the aim of the paper. The research period covers the years 2000?2018.

Findings & value added: The investment attractiveness of a voivodeship is closely related to the level of its economic development. Therefore, the following voivodeships are listed at the top of the investment attractiveness rankings: Mazowieckie, Dolnośląskie, Śląskie, Małopolskie, and Pomorskie. The conducted study has confirmed that the creation of special economic zones and the development of regional smart specialisations contribute to the inflow of foreign capital. It is worth noting that the assessment of investment attractiveness is relative. The comparison of the innovative attractiveness of voivodeships is based on the use of the average value, overestimated by cities, i.e. central hubs, attracting investors. The regional perspective on investment attractiveness using multi-dimensional statistical analysis methods is the added value of the article.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Acaravci, A., & Ozturk, I. (2012) Foreign direct investment, export and economic growth: empirical evidence from new EU countries. Romanian Journal of Economic Forecasting, 2, 52?67.

Antwi, S., Mills, E. F., Mills, G. A., & Zhao, X. (2013). Impact of foreign direct investment on economic growth: empirical evidence from Ghana. International Journal of Academic Research in Accounting, Finance and Management Sciences, 3(1), 18?25.

Asongu, S., Akpan U. S., & Isihak, S. R., (2018). Determinants of foreign direct investment in fast-growing economies: evidence from the BRICS and MINT countries. Financial Innovation, 4(1), 1?17. doi:10.1186/s40854-018-0114-0.

Attila, A. T. (2016). The impact of the hotel industry on the competitiveness of tourism destinations in Hungary. Journal of Competitiveness, 8(4), 85?104. doi: 10.7441/joc.2016.04.06.

Balcerzak, A. P. (2020). Quality of institutions in the European Union countries. Application of TOPSIS based on entropy measure for objective weighting. Acta Polytechnica Hungarica, 17(1), 101?122. doi: 10.12700/APH.17.1.2020.1.6.

Bandelj, N. (2010). How EU integration and legacies mattered for foreign direct investment into Central and Eastern Europe. Europe-Asia Studies, 62(3), 481?501. doi: 10.1080/09668131003647846.

Bandelj, N. (2002). Embedded Economies: determinants of foreign direct investment in Central and Eastern Europe. Social Forces, 81(2), 411?444.

Baranwal, G. (2019). Links between foreign direct investment and human capital formation: evidence from the manufacturing sector in India. Journal of International Trade & Economic Development, 28(2), 137?160. doi: 10.1080/09638 199.2018.1508304.

Bartlett, W., Krasniqi, B., & Ahmetbasic, J. (2019). Attracting FDI to the Western Balkans: special economic zones and smart specialisation strategies. Croatian Economic Survey, 21(2), 5?35. doi: 10.15179/ces.21.2.1.

Bayar, Y., Remeikien?, R., Žufan, J., & Novotný, M. (2020). Unemployment effects of greenfield and brownfield investments in post-transition European Union members. E & M Ekonomie a Management, 23(2), 4?16. doi: 10.15240/tul /001/2020-2-001.

Bellak, Ch., Leibrecht, M., & Riedl, A. (2008). Labour costs and FDI inflows into Central and Eastern European countries: a survey of the literature and empirical evidence. Structural Change and Economics Dynamics, 19(1), 17?37. doi: 10.1016/j.strueco.2007.03.001.

Beenstock, M., Felsenstein, D., & Rubin, Z. (2017). Does foreign direct investment polarize regional earnings? Some evidence from Israel. Letters in Spatial and Resource Sciences, 10(3), 385?409. doi: 10.1007/s12076-017-0192-z.

Butkus, M., Mačiulyt?-Šniukien?, A., Matuzevičiut?, K., & Cibulskien?, D. (2020). Does financial support from ERDF and CF contribute to convergence in the EU? Empirical evidence at NUTS 3 level. Prague Economic Papers, 29(3), 315?329. doi: 10.18267/j.pep.737.

Cheng, L. K., & Kwan, Y. K. (2000). What are the determinants of the location of foreign direct investment? The Chinese experience. Journal of International Economics, 51(2), 379?400. doi: 10.1016/S0022-1996(99)00032-X.

Cieślik, A., & Hien Tran, G. (2019). Determinants of outward FDI from emerging economies. Equilibrium. Quarterly Journal of Economics and Economic Policy, 14(2), 209?231. doi: 10.24136/eq.2019.010

Cormack, R. (1971). A review of classification. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series A, 134(3), 321?353. doi: 10.2307/2344237.

Das, M. (2020). Determinants of inward foreign direct investment: comparison across different country groups. Applied Econometrics and International Development, 20(1), 5?22.

Dias, R., Teixeira, N., Machova, V., Pardal, P., Horak, J., & Vochozka, M. (2020). Random walks and market efficiency tests: evidence on US, Chinese and European capital markets within the context of the global Covid-19 pandemic. Oeconomia Copernicana, 11(4), 585?608. doi: 10.24136/oc.2020.024.

Dunning, J. H., & Lundan, S. M., (2008a). Institutions and the OLI paradigm of the multinational enterprise. Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 25(4), 573?593. doi: 10.1007/s10490-007-9074-z.

Dunning, J. H., & Lundan, S. M. (2008b). Multinational enterprises and the global economy. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.

Dunning, J. H. (2006). Towards a new paradigm of development: implications for the determinants of international business activity. Transnational Corporation, 15(1), 173?227. doi: 10.4337/9781849808064.00015.

Dunning, J. H. (1993). Multinational enterprises and the global economy. MA: Wokingham Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.

European Parliament & Council of the European Union. (2005). Regulation (EC) No 1888/2005 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 October 2005 amending Regulation (EC) No 1059/2003 on the establishment of a common classification of territorial units for statistics (NUTS) by reason of the accession of the Czech Republic, Estonia, Cyprus, Latvia, Lithuania, Hungary, Malta, Poland, Slovenia and Slovakia to the European Union, OJ L 309, 25.11.2005 ). Accessed 12.09.2020 from https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/PL/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:32005R1888&from=LV.

Everitt, B. S., Landau, S., & Leese, M. (2001). Cluster analysis. London: Hodder Arnold.

E&Y (2019). How can Europe raise its game? EY attractiveness survey. Europe. June 2019. https://assets.ey.com/content/dam/ey-sites/ey-com/en_gl/topics/att ractiveness/ey-europe-attractiveness-survey-june-2019.pdf.

Faeth, I. (2009). Determinants of foreign direct investment ? a tale of nine theoretical models. Journal of Economic Surveys, 23(1), 165?196. doi:10.1111/j.1467-6419.2008.00560.x.

Feng, Y., Wang, X., Du, W., Wu, H., & Wang, J. (2019). Effects of environmental regulation and FDI on urban innovation in China: a spatial Durbin econometric analysis. Journal of Cleaner Production, 235, 210?224. doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro .2019.06.184.

Gavurova, B., Ivankova, V., Rigelsky, M., & Přívarová, M. (2020). Relations between tourism spending and global competitiveness ? an empirical study in developed OECD countries. Journal of Tourism and Services, 21(11), 38?54. doi: 10.290 36/jots.v11i21.175.

Gentile-Lüdecke, S., & Giroud A. (2012). Knowledge transfer from MNCs and upgrading of domestic firms: the Polish automotive sector. World Development, 40(4), 796?807. doi: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2011.09.024.

Gnanadesikan, R., Kettenring, J. R., & Tsao, S. L. (1995). Weighting and selection of variables for cluster analysis. Journal of Classification, 12(1), 113?136.

Godlewska-Majkowska, H., Komor A., Pilewicz, T., Turek, D., Żukowska, J., Zarębski, P., Czernecki, M., Miąsek, D., & Typa M. (2017). Atrakcyjność Inwestycyjna Regionów 2017. Warszawa: PAIH.

Godlewska-Majkowska, H. (2013). Polish regions and their investment attractiveness in the EU. In M. A. Weresa (Ed.). Poland competitiveness advantages 2013. National and regional dimensions. Warszawa: SGH, 299?316.

Godlewska-Majkowska, H. (Ed.) (2008). Investment attractiveness of Polish regions in search of new measures. Warszawa: Oficyna Wydawnicza SGH.

Gordon, A. D. (1999). Classification. Chapman & Hall/CRC Monographs on Statistics & Applied Probability.

Gordon, A. D. (1987). A review of hierarchical classification. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series A (General), 150(2), 119?137. doi: 10.2307/2981629.

Gorynia, M., Nowak, J., & Wolniak, R. (2007). Motives and modes of FDI in Poland: an exploratory qualitative study. Journal for East European Management Studies, 12(2), 132?151.

Grzelak, M. M., & Roszko-Wójtowicz, E. (2020). Tourist attractiveness of voivodeships in Poland in the light of selected indicators: a dynamic approach. Economic Annals-XXI, 184(7-8), 161?177. doi: 10.21003/ea.V184-14.

GUS (2016). Household Budget Survey in 2015. Warszawa: GUS.

GUS (2001). Economic Activity of Entities with Foreign Capital in 2000. Warszawa: GUS.

GUS (2006). Economic Activity of Entities with Foreign Capital in 2005. Warszawa: GUS.

GUS (2011). Economic Activity of Entities with Foreign Capital in 2010. Warszawa: GUS.

GUS (2016). Economic Activity of Entities with Foreign Capital in 2015. Warszawa: GUS.

GUS (2019). Economic Activity of Entities with Foreign Capital in 2018. Warszawa: GUS.

Heller, J., & Warżała, R. (2005). Regional Determinants of the Inflow of Foreign Direct Investment to Poland. Ekonomista, 6, 785?799.

Hintošová, A. B., Sudzina, F., & Barlašová, T. (2021). Direct and indirect effects of investment incentives in Slovakia. Journal of Risk and Financial Management, 14(2), 56. doi: 10.3390/jrfm14020056.

Hlaváček, P., & Bal-Domańska, B. (2016). Impact of foreign direct investment on economic growth in Central European countries. Engineering Economics, 27(3), 294?303. doi: 10.5755/j01.ee.27.3.3914.

Hlavacek, P. (2009). The foreign direct investments in the Usti region: theory, actors and space differentiation. E & M Ekonomie a Management, 12(4), 27?39.

Hoang, H. H., Huynh, C. M., Duong, N. M. H., & Chau, N. H. (2021). Determinants of foreign direct investment in Southern Central Coast of Vietnam: a spatial econometric analysis. Economic Change and Restructuring. Advance online publication. doi:10.1007/s10644-020-09315-3.

Hobbs, S., Paparas, D., & v Abo Elsoud, M. E. (2021). Does foreign direct investment and trade promote economic growth? Evidence from Albania. Economies, 9(1), 1?19. doi: 10.3390/ economies9010001.

Iammarino, S., Rodriguez-Pose, A., & Storper, M. (2019). Regional inequality in Europe: evidence, theory and policy implications. Journal of Economic Geography, 19(2), 273?298. doi:10.1093/jeg/lby021.

IGCC (2019). Poland in the opinion of foreign investors. Retrieved from https://phig.pl/uploads/2019/wydarzenia/ankieta-igcc/ankieta-koniunkturalna-2019-press.pdf (02.09.2020).

Jakšić, S., Erjavec, N., & Cota, B. (2019). The role of foreign direct investment and labor productivity in explaining Croatian regional export dynamics. Central European Journal of Operations Research, 27(3), 835?849. doi: 10.1007/s 10100-018-0583-2.

Jin, B., García, F., & Salomon, R. (2019). Inward foreign direct investment and local firm innovation: the moderating role of technological capabilities. Journal of International Business Studies, 50(5), 847?855. doi: 10.1057/s41267-018-0177-1.

Kaufman, L., & Rousseeuw, P. J. (1990). Finding groups in data: an introduction to cluster analysis. New York: Wiley.

Kaźmierski, J. (2012). Consequences of locating logistic centres in urban space. Problemy Rozwoju Miast, 9(1), 100?109.

Kemeny, T. (2010). Does foreign direct investment drive technological upgrading? World Development, 38(11), 1543?1554. doi:10.1016/j.worlddev.2010.03.001.

Klimek, D. (2018). Foreign direct investment in special economic zones ? problems and dilemmas. Kwartalnik Naukowy Uczelni Vistula, 2(56), 60?71.

Korzeb, Z., & Niedziółka, P. (2020). Resistance of commercial banks to the crisis caused by the COVID-19 pandemic: the case of Poland. Equilibrium. Quarterly Journal of Economics and Economic Policy, 15(2), 205?234. doi: 10.24136/eq. 2020.010.

Kuc-Czarnecka, M. (2020). COVID-19 and digital deprivation in Poland. Oeconomia Copernicana, 11(3), 415?431. doi: 10.24136/oc.2020.017.

Kufel, T. (2020). ARIMA-based forecasting of the dynamics of confirmed Covid-19 cases for selected European countries. Equilibrium. Quarterly Journal of Economics and Economic Policy, 15(2), 181?204. doi: 10.24136/eq.2020.009.

European Commission (2016). Commission Regulation (EU) 2016/2066 of 21 November 2016 amending the annexes to Regulation (EC) No 1059/2003 of the European Parliament and of the Council on the establishment of a common classification of territorial units for statistics (NUTS), OJ L 322, 29.11.2016 ). Retrieved form https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/PL/TXT/PDF/?uri=CEL EX:32016R2066&from=PL (12.09.2020).

Kyriacou, A., & Roca-Sagalés, O. (2012). The impact of EU structural funds on regional disparities within member states. Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy, 30(2), 267?281. doi:10.1068/c11140r.

Lee, K. H. (2016). The conceptualization of country attractiveness: a review of research. International Review of Administrative Sciences, 82(4), 807?826. doi: 10.1177/0020852314566002.

Li, C. C., & Tanna, S. (2019). The impact of foreign direct investment on productivity: new evidence for developing countries. Economic Modelling, 80(C), 453?466. doi: 10.1016/j.econmod.2018.11.028.

Mabillard, V., & Vuignier, R. (2020). Exploring the relationship between transparency, attractiveness factors, and the location of foreign companies: what matters most? Place Brand Public Diplomacy. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1057/s41254-020-00171-6.

Mahmoodi, M., & Mahmoodi E. (2016). Foreign direct investment, exports and economic growth: evidence from two panels of developing countries. Economic Research ? Ekonomska Istraživanja, 29(1), 938?949. doi: 10.1080/1331677X. 2016.1164922.

McCann, P., & Ortega-Argiles, R. (2014). Smart specialisation in European regions: issues of strategy, institutions and implementation. European Journal of Innovation Management, 17(4), 409?427. doi: 10.1108/EJIM-05-2014-0052.

Milligan, G. W., & Cooper, M. C. (1987). Methodology review: clustering methods. Applied Psychological Measurement, 11(4), 329?354. doi: 10.1177/01466 2168701100401.

Milligan, G. W. (1996). Clustering validation: results and implication for applied analysis. In P. Arabie, L. J. Hubert, G. De Soete (Eds.). Clustering and classification. Singapore: World Scientific, 341?375. doi: 10.1142/9789812832153 _0010.

Miśkiewicz, D. (2018). Economic determinants of investment attractiveness in the context of budgetary constraints. Współczesne Problemy Ekonomiczne, 1(16), 39?57. doi: 10.18276/wpe.2018.16-03.

Mitic, B., & Ivić, M. (2016). The impact of foreign direct investment on export performance: case of European transition economies. Independent Journal of Management & Production (IJM&P), 7(3), 771?785. doi: 10.14807/ijmp.v7i3 .440.

Moraru, C. (2013). Foreign direct investment and economic growth in Romania. Theoretical and Applied Economics, 20(5/582), 125?134.

Mottaleb, K. A., & Kalirajan, K. (2010). Determinants of foreign direct investment in developing countries: a comparative analysis. Margin: The Journal of Applied Economic Research, 4(4), 369?404. doi: 10.1177/097380101000400401.

Mucuk, M., & Demirsel, M.T. (2013). The effect of foreign direct investments on unemployment: evidence from panel data for seven developing countries. Journal of Business, Economics and Finance, 2(3), 53?66.

Namyślak, B. (2004). Foreign capital in special economic zones in Poland. Prace Komisji Geografii Przemysłu Polskiego Towarzystwa Geograficznego, 7, 25?30.

Nazarczuk, J. M., & Krajewska, A. (2018). Local determinants of foreign direct investment in Poland: the role of relative distance. Equilibrium. Quarterly Journal of Economics and Economic Policy, 13(1), 73?88. doi: 10.24136/eq. 2018.004.

NBP (2018). Zagraniczne inwestycje bezpośrednie w Polsce i polskie inwestycje bezpośrednie za granicą w 2016 roku. Warszawa: NBP. Retrieved from https://www.nbp.pl/publikacje/ib_raporty/raport_ib_2016.pdf (07.09.2020).

NBP (2015). Zagraniczne inwestycje bezpośrednie w Polsce i polskie inwestycje bezpośrednie za granicą w 2014 roku. Warszawa: NBP. Retrieved from https://www.nbp.pl/publikacje/ib_raporty/raport_ib_2014.pdf. 07.09.2020.

Nosheen, M. (2013). Impact of foreign direct investment on gross domestic product. World Applied Sciences Journal, 24(10), 1358?1361. doi: 10.5829/idosi. wasj.2013.24.10.229.

PAIiIZ (2004). List of the largest foreign investors in Poland. Warszawa: PAIiZ.

PAIiIZ (2003). List of the largest foreign investors in Poland. Warszawa: PAIiZ.

Rogalska, E. (2018). Cluster analysis of entrepreneurial environment in Polish regions. In M. Reiff & P. Gezik (Eds.). Proceedings of the international scientific conference quantitative methods in economics multiple criteria decision making XIX. Trenčianske Teplice: Letra Edu, 305?312.

Pardal, P., Dias, R., Šuleř, P., Teixeira, N., & Krulický, T. (2020). Integration in Central European capital markets in the context of the global COVID-19 pandemic. Equilibrium. Quarterly Journal of Economics and Economic Policy, 15(4), 627?650. doi: 10.24136/eq.2020.027.

Paul, J., & Singh, G. (2017). The 45 years of foreign direct investment research: approaches, advances and analytical areas. World Economy, 40(11), 2512?2527. doi: 10.1111/twec.12502.

Pietrzak, M. B. (2019). Modifiable areal unit problem: the issue of determining the relationship between microparameters and a macroparameter. Oeconomia Copernicana, 10(3), 393?417. doi: 10.24136/oc.2019.019.

Przychodzeń, W. (2012). Factors determining the inflow of foreign direct investment to Poland. Handel Wewnętrzny, 6(341), 10?20.

Radosevic, S., & Stancova, K. C. (2018). Internationalising smart specialisation: assessment and issues in the case of EU new member states. Journal of the Knowledge Economy, 9(1), 263?293. doi: 10.1007/s13132-015-0339-3.

Roszko-Wójtowicz, E. (2014). Cluster analysis-based assessment of the potential of European Union countries to generate innovation. Metody Ilościowe w Badaniach Ekonomicznych, 15(4), 121?136.

Roszko-Wójtowicz, E., & Grzelak, M.M. (2020). Macroeconomic stability and the level of competitiveness in EU member states: a comparative dynamic approach. Oeconomia Copernicana, 11(4), 657?688. doi: 10.24136/oc.2020.027.

Roszko-Wójtowicz, E., & Białek J. (2019). Measurement of the average innovativeness change overtime in the EU member states. Journal of Business Economics and Management, 20(2), 268?293. doi: 10.3846/jbem. 2019.8337.

Russo, A., Smith, I., Atkinson, R., Servillo, L., Madsen, B., & Van der Borg, J. (2013). ATTREG: the attractiveness of European region and cities for residents and visitors. Scientific report, ESPON. Tarragona: University Rovirai Virgili.

Sala, H., & Silva, J. (2013). Labor productivity and vocational training: evidence from Europe. Journal of Productivity Analysis, 40(1), 31?41. doi: 10.1007/ s11123-012-0304-0.

Servillo, L., Atkinson, R., & Russo, A. P. (2012). Territorial attractiveness in EU urban and spatial policy: a critical review and future research agenda. European Urban and Regional Studies, 19(4), 349?365. doi: 10.1177/0969776411430 289.

Shuyan, L., & Fabuš, M. (2019). Study on the spatial distribution of China?s outward foreign direct investment in EU and its influencing factors. Entrepreneurship and Sustainability Issues, 6(3), 1280?1296. doi: 10.9770/jesi.2019.6.3(16).

Siemiątkowski, P. (2011). The role of foreign capital in the transformation of the Polish economy. Toruńskie Studia Międzynarodowe, 1(4), 63?76. doi: 10.127 75/TIS.2011.006.

Siudak, P. (2014). The role of special economic zones in attracting direct foreign investment to Poland. Prace Naukowe Uniwersytetu Ekonomicznego we Wrocławiu, 346, 246?256. doi: 10.15611/pn.2014.346.23.

Škare, M., Franc-Dąbrowska, J., & Cvek, D. (2020). Cointegration analysis and VECM of FDI, employment, export and GDP in Croatia (2002-2017) with particular reference to the global crisis and poor macroeconomic governance. Equilibrium. Quarterly Journal of Economics and Economic Policy, 15(4), 761?783. doi: 10.24136/eq.2020.033.

Snieska, V., Zykiene, I., & Burksaitiene, D. (2019). Evaluation of location?s attractiveness for business growth in smart development. Economic Research ? Ekonomska Istraživanja, 32(1), 925?946. doi: 10.1080/1331677X.2019.1590 217.

Song, Y., Deng, R., Liu, R., & Peng, Q. (2020). Effects of special economic zones on FDI in emerging economies: does institutional quality matter? Sustainability, 12(20), 8409, 1?21. doi: 10.3390/su12208409.

Steinley, D., & Brusco, M.J. (2008). Selection of variables in cluster analysis: an empirical comparison of eight procedures. Psychometrika, 73(1), 125?144. doi: 10.1007/s11336-007-9019-y.

Stimson, R. J., Stough, R. R., & Roberts, B. H. (2006). Regional economic development. Analysis and planning strategy. Berlin: Springer.

Turok, I., & McGranahan, G. (2013). Urbanization and economic growth: the arguments and evidence for Africa and Asia. Environment and Urbanization, 25(2), 465?482. doi: 10.1177/0956247813490908.

Vijayakumar, N., Sridharan, P., & Rao, K. C. S. (2010). Determinants of FDI in BRICS countries: a panel analysis. International Journal of Business Science and Applied Management, 5(3), 1?13. doi: 10.1177/2394901516661095.

Villaverde, J., & Maza, A. (2015). The determinants of inward foreign direct investment: evidence from the European regions. International Business Review, 24(2), 209?223. doi:10.1016/j.ibusrev.2014.07.008.

Wang, J. (2013). The economic impact of special economic zones: evidence from Chinese municipalities. Journal of Development Economics, 101, 133?147. doi: 10.1016/j.jdeveco.2012.10.009.

Wawrzyniak, D. (2010). Determinants of foreign direct investment location. Gospodarka Narodowa, 239(4), 89?111. doi: 10.33119/GN/101174.

Wierzbicka, W. (2020). Socio-economic potential of cities belonging to the Polish National Cittaslow Network. Oeconomia Copernicana, 11(1), 203?224. doi: 10.24136/oc.2020.009.

Yegorova, I., & Hasano?lu, M. (2016). Trends and priorities of international investment in the economy of Ukraine. Periodyk Naukowy Akademii Polonijnej, 18(3), 113?127. doi: 10.23856/1813.

Zagórska, I. (2016). Foreign-capital entities in Poland in 2014 according to the data of the Central Statistical Office. In Foreign investments in Poland 2014-2015. Warszawa: IBR, KiK, 48?50.

Zinecker, M.,, Doubravský, K., Balcerzak, A.P., Pietrzak, M. B., & Dohnal, M., (2021). The Covid-19 disease and policy response to mitigate the economic impact in the EU: an exploratory study based on qualitative trend analysis. Technological and Economic Development of Economy. Advance online publication. doi: 10.3846/tede.2021.14585.

Downloads

Published

2021-03-31

How to Cite

Roszko-Wójtowicz, E., & Grzelak, M. M. (2021). Multi-dimensional analysis of regional investment attractiveness in Poland. Equilibrium. Quarterly Journal of Economics and Economic Policy, 16(1), 103–138. https://doi.org/10.24136/eq.2021.004

Issue

Section

Articles